Prevalence of obesity, food choices and socio-economic status: a cross-sectional study in the north-west of iran.
Sommaire de l'article
AIM: To document the epidemiological features and influencing factors of obesity in the north-west of Iran, to provide baseline information for setting up a regional population-based centre to control and prevent obesity-related disorders in the area. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 300 subjects were selected/studied in Tabriz, one of the major cities in Iran. Data on basic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary assessment and physical activity were collected. Obesity was defined as body mass index > or =30 kg m(-2) for both women and men. RESULTS: Total prevalence of obesity in the area was 22.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 18.0-27.6). The prevalence of obesity was 24% (95% CI: 18.5-31.4) for women and 18% (95% CI: 12.5-25.6) for men. For both women and men obesity prevalence showed a positive association with age (P<0.001), while there was a negative correlation of obesity with education and income (P<0.001). Fruit consumption decreased the risk of obesity in both women and men (odds ratio (OR)=0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.71 vs. OR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.51-0.74, respectively). The same significant pattern was observed for the consumption of green vegetables (OR=0.71, 95% CI: 0.57-0.63 vs. OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.77-0.98 for women and men, respectively), legumes (OR=0.70, 95% CI: 0.59-0.84 vs. OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.66-0.91 for women and men, respectively) and dairy products (OR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.61-0.91 vs. OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.63-0.93 for women and men, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that educational attainment, higher income and consumption of certain food groups (i.e. vegetables, fruits, legumes and dairy products) may decrease the risk of obesity. Our findings also indicate the crucial necessity of establishing a population-based centre for obesity in the area. The essential information is now achieved to propose to local health authorities to act accordingly. However, more population-based investigations on dietary choices are needed to develop effective preventive strategies to control overweight and obesity disorders in different regions.