[Prevention of cardiovascular and degenerative diseases: II. Hormones and/or Mediterranean diet].
Sommaire de l'article
In ageing people there is a gradual decrease of serum level of testosterone(T), dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA) and growth hormone (GH) in both sexes and a cessation of estrogen secretion in women. There is no decrease of C-V risk after estrogen and medroxyprogesterone treatment in post menopausal women in primary or in secondary prevention. There is a 30% increase of breast cancer after estrogen treatment (> 5 years). The treatment with raloxifene decreases the risk of breast cancer, of osteoporosis and of coronary events but it induces hot flushes. The administration of other hormones (T, DHEA and STH) could improve muscle strength, osteoporosis and libido (T, DHEA) and well being (STH, DHEA) but C-V and oncogenic risks beyond 3 years of treatment are unknown. A hormonal treatment is probably no better than regular physical exercise and a Mediterranean diet (M.diet). The latter is characterized by a high consumption of vegetables, fruits, fish and cereals, by a moderate intake of olive oil, wine and milky products and a low intake of meat. The properties of these different components are reviewed as well as the antiarrhythmic effects of omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentanoic acid and alpha-linolenic acid). The M.diet could also have a protective effect on the coronary events in secondary prevention. The difficulty to change life style and food patterns is analysed in comparison to the long time oral administration of drugs such as statins.