Quantitation of carotenoids in raw and processed fruits in japan
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Abstract: To obtain the quantitative and qualitative data available for estimating the intake of carotenoids from fruits in Japan, carotenoids were analyzed with reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Ten carotenoids were examined in 75 raw fruits and 15 processed fruits, all of which were harvested or purchased in Japan. Phytoene was detected in 58 of 90 fruit samples; C-carotene, in 50 of 90; lycopene, in 13 of 90; a-carotene, in 18 of 90; lutein, in 56 of 90; beta-carotene, in 80 of 90; beta-cryptoxanthin, in 68 of 90; zeaxanthin, in 58 of 90; all-trans-violaxanthin, in 55 of 90; and 9-cis-violaxanthin, in 47 of 90 samples. Citrus fruits of the mandarin type (Satsuma mandarin and its hybrids, such as tangor) were rich n beta-cryptoxanthin, beta-carotene, all-trans-violaxanthin, and 9-cis-violaxanthin; ‘Star ruby’ grapefruit in lycopene; loquat, Japanese persimmon, and peach in beta-cryptoxanthin, beta-carotene, all-trans-violaxanthin, and 9-cis-violaxanthin; mango in beta-carotene, all-trans-violaxanthin, and 9-cis-violaxanthin; acerolas in phytoene; passion fruits in C-carotene. Carotenoid levels in common fruits, such as apple, grape, lemon, pear, strawberry, kiwifruit, cherry, pineapple, and banana, were low.