Risk factors for prostate cancer: A multifactorial case-control study.
Sommaire de l'article
Prostate cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among Pakistani men. It is a multifactorial disease involving genetics together with environmental factors. Countries where men have greater dietary fat intake showed increased prostate cancer mortality rates. A population based case-control study was conducted to evaluate various prostate cancer risk factors. Study subjects were 896 prostate cancer cases (2010-2015) and 900 age matched controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were used to estimate the association between different risk factors and prostate cancer. P values for different factors were computed by t-test, chi-square test, and Fisher exact test. Results showed significant association of increased age (OR = 10.6; CI: 7.92-14.31; P = 0.0001; Z = 15.7) and smoking (P = 0.05) with risk of disease. Consistent evidence suggested that fruits (P = 0.0001), vegetables (P = 0.0007), and diabetes mellitus (OR = 0.84; CI: 0.72-0.97; P = 0.02; Z = 2.28) were significantly associated with decreased prostate cancer risk. Comparison of education, marital status, occupation, intake of meat (<100 grams/week, 101-250 grams/week, >250 grams/week), number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking duration, and family history of disease among cases and controls were not associated (P > 0.05) with risk of prostate cancer. Most of the prostate cancer patients were at stage IV with a Gleason score ranging from 7-9 and had undergone surgery. This epidemiological study illustrated that age and smoking were potential risk factors for prostate cancer in Pakistani men. Furthermore, phytonutrients can reduce its risk to a greater extent. Prospective studies with detailed analysis and greater sample size are required to explore more accurate findings.