Saturated fat intake is reduced in patients with ischemic heart disease 1 year after comprehensive counseling but not after brief counseling
Sommaire de l'article
To examine the dietary habits of patients with ischemic heart disease 1 year after they received either dietary advice on using the Plate Model and how to increase intakes of fruits and vegetables in a 10-minute session (brief counseling group, BCG) or dietary advice primarily based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Step I diet provided in 2 individually tailored 50-minute sessions held 3 months apart (comprehensive counseling group, CCG).
A randomized study that included dietary intake evaluation on basis of 7-day weighed food records completed at 3 occasions: immediately before counseling (week zero), 12 weeks after counseling, and 52 weeks after counseling.
BCG was composed of 15 men and 2 women and CCG was composed of 16 men and 3 women with ischemic heart disease age 70 years or younger recruited from the Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED:
ANOVA, unpaired t tests, and multiple regression analysis, as well as nonparametric statistical analyses were carried out.
The comprehensive counseling resulted in significant improvements from week 0 to 52 in the percent of energy from fat (33% to 28%), saturated fat (12% to 9%) and carbohydrate (51% to 54%) consumed by the subjects. The corresponding values in BCG did not differ significantly (31% to 32%, 11% to 12%, 53% to 52% respectively). Differences from week 0 to 52 between groups were significant for fat, saturated fat, and carbohydrate intake. In CCG, median intakes of fish, fruits, and vegetables were 44 g/day, 172 g/day, and 315 g/day, respectively, at week 52. The corresponding values in BCG were 44 g/day, 129 g/day, and 224 g/day. There was no significant difference either within or between the groups.
This study suggests that sustained improvements in dietary behavior require individualized and reinforced counseling in patients with ischemic heart disease. Changes in intakes of fish, fruits, and vegetables need to be specifically targeted.