Self-management levels of diet and metabolic risk factors according to disease duration in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Sommaire de l'article
Metabolic risk factors should be managed effectively in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to prevent or delay diabetic complications. This study aimed to compare the self-management levels of diet and metabolic risk factors in patients with T2DM, according to the duration of illness, and to examine the trends in self-management levels during the recent decades.
Data were collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES, 1998-2014). In our analysis, 4,148 patients with T2DM, aged ≥ 30 years, were categorized according to the duration of their illness (< 5 years, 5-9 years, and ≥ 10 years). Demographic and lifestyle information was assessed through self-administered questionnaires, and biomarker levels (e.g., fasting glucose level, blood pressure, or lipid level) were obtained from a health examination. Dietary intake was assessed by a 24-recall, and adherence level to dietary guidelines (meal patterns and intake levels of calories, carbohydrates, vegetable/seaweed, sodium, and alcohol) were assessed. Multivariable generalized linear regression and unconditional logistic regression models were used to compare the prevalence rates of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension according to the duration of patients' illness, accounting for the complex survey design of the KNHANES.
In the multivariable adjusted models, patients with a longer duration (≥ 10 years) of T2DM had a higher prevalence of hyperglycemia than those with a shorter duration of T2DM (< 5 years) (odds ratio 2.20, 95% confidence interval 1.61-3.01,
Although the proportion of patients with adequate control of glucose levels has improved in recent decades, poorer self-management has been found in those with a longer disease duration. These findings suggest the need for well-planned and individualized patient education programs to improve self-management levels and quality of life by preventing or delaying diabetic complications.