Short-term biomarkers of apple consumption.
Sommaire de l'article
Urinary biomarkers are used to estimate the nutritional intake of humans. The aim of this study was to distinguish between low, medium and high apple consumption by quantifying possible intake biomarkers in urine samples after apple consumption by HPLC-MS/MS. Apples were chosen as they are the most consumed fruits in Germany.
METHODS AND RESULTS
30 subjects took part in a seven day study. They abstained from apples and apple products except for one weighed apple portion resembling one, two or four apples. Before apple consumption and during the following days spot urine samples were collected. These urine samples were incubated with β-glucuronidase, diluted and directly measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Phloretin, epicatechin, procyanidin B2 and quercetin were detected in urine using Scheduled MRM(TM) mode. Phloretin was confirmed as a urinary biomarker of apple intake and had the ability to discriminate between low or medium (1 or 2 apples) and high apple consumption (4 apples). The groups also differ in the excretion of epicatechin and procyanidin B2.
Apple consumption can be monitored by urinary biomarkers for a period of at least 12h after consumption. Furthermore the amount of apples consumed can be estimated by the concentration of certain biomarkers.