Socioeconomic gradient in consumption of whole fruit and 100% fruit juice among US children and adults.
Sommaire de l'article
The consumption of fruit is generally associated with better health, but also higher socioeconomic status (SES). Most previous studies evaluating consumption of fruits have not separated 100% fruit juice and whole fruit, which may conceal interesting patterns in consumption.
To estimate demographic and socioeconomic correlates of whole fruit versus 100% juice consumption among children and adults in the United States.
Secondary analyses of two cycles of the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2007-2010, by gender, age group, race/ethnicity and SES among 16,628 children and adults.
Total fruit consumption (population average of 1.06 cup equivalents/d) fell far short of national goals. Overall, whole fruit provided about 65% of total fruit, while 100% juice provided the remainder. Whereas 100% juice consumption was highest among children and declined sharply with age, whole fruit consumption was highest among older adults. Total fruit and whole fruit consumption was generally higher among those with higher incomes or more education. By contrast, the highest 100% juice consumption was found among children, racial/ethnic minorities and lower-income groups.
Consumption patterns for whole fruit versus 100% fruit juice showed different gradients by race/ethnicity, education, and income. The advice to replace 100% juice with whole fruit may pose a challenge for the economically disadvantaged and some minority groups, whose fruit consumption falls short of national goals.