[Sugar intake and public health]
Sommaire de l'article
BACKGROUND: Sugar is present in simple forms such as sucrose, lactose and fructose, and in the more complex forms starch and fibre. Complex carbohydrates in foods like vegetables and less refined grain products provide energy and important additions of vitamins, minerals and fibre. We have reviewed the effects of sugars on overweight, diabetes Type 2 and caries, and the intake of carbohydrates in simple and complex forms in the Norwegian population.
METHOD: Literature was found in the databases PubMed and Bibsys, and in public statistics.
RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION: Sugars in beverages and candy only contribute with energy that can lead to an increased amount of fat in the body. High sugar intakes contribute to development of overweight, diabetes type 2 and caries. Glucose from sucrose and starch increase blood glucose levels and stimulate insulin secretion. Lack of insulin response after fructose intake can result in adverse effects on lipid metabolism and satiety regulation. Norway is one of the countries in the world with the highest intake of sweetened beverages. Preventive health measures aimed at decreasing sugar intake in pre-school and school children must include increased availability of fruits and vegetables, water and better canteens. The increased sugar intake among adolescents requires measures from politicians and authorities.
[Article in Norwegian]