The association between blood pressure in adolescents and the consumption of fruits, vegetables and fruit juice–an exploratory study
Sommaire de l'article
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to correlate blood pressure levels with the consumption of fruit, vegetables and pulses and fruit juice among Brazilian adolescents.
BACKGROUND: Scientific evidence has shown a relationship between the regular consumption of vegetables and the prevention of cardiovascular disturbances, such as arterial hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and dyslipidemia.
DESIGN: A cross-sectional and correlational study was designed involving a random sample of 794 adolescents from 12 private schools located in a metropolitan area in the north-east of Brazil.
METHOD: The subjects responded to a questionnaire structured so as to investigate their regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, pulses and juice. Blood pressure was measured three times, with an interval of one minute between each measurement. The average of the last two measurements was used for the study. The chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman’s rank correlation were used to investigate the association between blood pressure and the consumption of fruit, vegetables, pulses and juice.
RESULTS: Lower values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were identified in adolescents with a consumption of fruit ≥twice daily (p<0·001). In the case of vegetables and pulses, systolic blood pressure was lower among adolescents who consumed more of this type of food (p=0·021).
CONCLUSIONS: This study concluded that adolescents who consume more fruit have lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while those who regularly consume vegetables and pulses also had lower levels of systolic pressure.
RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The results of this study suggest that nurses can develop health education activities in schools to encourage the consumption of fruits, vegetables, pulses and fruit juices, especially among those adolescents who are more likely to develop arterial hypertension.