The impact of cruciferous vegetable isothiocyanates on histone acetylation and histone phosphorylation in bladder cancer.
Sommaire de l'article
Cruciferous vegetable intake is associated with reduced risk of bladder cancer, yet mechanisms remain unclear. Cruciferous vegetable isothiocyanates (ITCs), namely sulforaphane (SFN) and erucin (ECN), significantly inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in human bladder cancer cells representing superficial to invasive biology (59-83% inhibition with 20μM, 48h treatment), and in bladder cancer xenografts (59±3% ECN inhibition). Individual HDACs inhibited by SFN and ECN include HDACs 1, 2, 4 and 6. Interestingly, global acetylation status of histones H3 or H4 remain unaltered.The interplay between HDAC inhibition and modest modulation of AcH3 and AcH4 status is partially explained by decreased histone acetyl transferase activity (48.8±5.3%). In contrast, a significant decrease in phosphorylation status of all isoforms of histone H1 was observed, concomitant with increased phosphatase PP1β and PP2A activity. Together, these findings suggest that ITCs modulate histone status via HDAC inhibition and phosphatase enhancement.This allows for reduced levels of histone H1 phosphorylation, a marker correlated with human bladder cancer progression. Therefore, ITC-mediated inhibition of histone H1 phosphorylation presents a novel direction of research in elucidating epidemiological relationships and supports future food-based prevention strategies.
Collectively, our findings suggest that the cruciferous vegetable isothiocyanates: sulforaphane (SFN) and erucin (ECN), impact histones status in bladder cancer cells by modulating specific HDACs and HATs, and enhancing phosphatase activity, resulting in reduction of histone H1 phosphorylation. These findings are significant due to the fact that our previous work positively correlated histone H1 phosphorylation with bladder cancer carcinogenesis and progression. Therefore, we propose that SFN and ECN may inhibit bladder carcinogenesis via epigenetic modulation of gene expression associated with histone H1 phosphorylation. These efforts may elucidate biomarkers useful in epidemiologic studies related to cruciferous vegetable intake and cancer risk or provide intermediate biomarkers for food-based clinical intervention studies in high-risk cohorts.