The protective role of the mediterranean diet on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a population of Greek obese subjects.
Sommaire de l'article
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a rapidly expanding epidemic in Western societies, with rates of more than 30% across Europe, and it is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disturbances. Previous reports have documented an association of reduced physical activity and abstinence from the traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) with increased mortality rate and prevalence of obesity in a population of Greek subjects.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and analyze the dietary habits in a population of Greek overweight and obese subjects and to investigate the potential associations between those patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome components. METHODS: The study recruited 226 consecutive adult (30 men, 169 women) overweight or obese (body mass index >25 kg/m²) individuals attending the Metabolic Diseases Unit. Medical history, dietary history, and anthropometric parameters were recorded during the first visit. Fasting blood samples were collected for biochemistry assaying.
RESULTS: According to the nutrient intake history and Mediterranean Diet Scale (MDS), participants were divided into 3 groups: those adhering to the MD and those not following the MD, who were further subdivided into the high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) diet groups according to the source of maximum energy intake. Adherence to the MD was associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (27.3%, 69.2%, and 60.4% in MD, HC, and HF respectively, p = 0.006), lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.009, MD vs. HF), and lower postchallenge glucose values (p = 0.028, MD vs. HF).
CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the MD seems to be declining among Greek overweight and obese subjects, a phenomenon that is associated with an increase in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.