The relation between dietary intake and glaucoma: a systematic review.
Sommaire de l'article
A common question of patients to their physician is what they can do themselves against glaucoma, except taking their daily medication. However, for ophthalmologists, it is often hard to give their patients an advice on their dietary intake. To help ophthalmologists in answering this question, an overview of the current scientific literature on the association of nutrients with glaucoma is presented.
A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in which articles published up to September 2017 were identified in PubMed and reference lists. Nutrients were categorized into minerals and trace elements, nutrition with antioxidative properties and omega-fatty acids.
The literature search revealed a total of 407 articles of which a total of 46 met the inclusion criteria. Most of these articles studied the effect of nutrients on open-angle glaucoma. Many trace elements have been investigated in the literature, but the most interesting are selenium and iron (both may increase the risk of glaucoma). Investigated nutrients with antioxidative properties and omega-fatty acids included glutathione, nitric oxide, carotenoids, flavonoids, and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Of these, glutathione, nitric oxide, and flavonoids had a significant protective effect on glaucoma.
Intake of selenium and iron may increase the risk of glaucoma, though, only few studies have been done on this topic. Nitric oxide present in other dark green leafy vegetables seems to have a beneficial effect on glaucoma. However, the evidence for an association of dietary intake with glaucoma is still not strong. More (longitudinal and randomized clinical trials) studies are required to make the presented findings clinically applicable.