The relationship among cardiovascular risk factors, diet patterns, alcohol consumption, and ethnicity among women aged 50 years and older.
Sommaire de l'article
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among women of all races and ethnicities. The risk of developing the disease is greater in postmenopausal women.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to use cluster analysis to examine diet patterns and to examine the association between diet patterns and the presence of major cardiovascular disease risk factors.
DESIGN: Data from the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2002 were used.
SUBJECTS/SETTING: Women aged 50 years and older were included (n=1,313).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The following major CVD risk factors were examined: being overweight or obese (body mass index >24.9), having elevated systolic blood pressure (>120 mm Hg), and having low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<50 mg/dL [<1.30 mmol/L]). Dietary patterns were derived by cluster analysis using data from a 24-hour dietary recall.
STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Odds Ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression to determine the probability of having a risk factor according to diet pattern while accounting for race/ethnicity, physical activity, age, and smoking. RESULTS: Cluster analysis generated six nonoverlapping diet patterns labeled: Pasta and Yellow Vegetables; Sweets; Beef, Starches, Fruits, and Milk; Frozen Meals, Burritos, and Pizza; Meat Dishes; and Soft Drinks and Poultry. The majority of the women were grouped in the Sweets diet pattern. Factors associated with adequate levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol included being non-Hispanic African American (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.81; P<0.0001), alcohol consumption (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.84; P<0.0001), and being assigned to the Sweets diet pattern (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.50; P<0.0001) or Meat dishes diet pattern (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.65; P<0.0075). The Sweets pattern was also associated with having normal systolic blood pressure levels (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.76; P<0.0001). Individuals grouped in the Beef, Starches, and Milk diet pattern were more likely to have an adequate body mass index (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.77; P<0.0032).
CONCLUSIONS: Significant associations between dietary patterns and major CVD risk factors were observed. Food and nutrition professionals can use this information to assess unhealthful food choices observed in the dietary patterns to guide nutrition recommendations and help reduce the incidence of CVD risk factors. Future research should aim to evaluate dietary intake via complementary methods (ie, dietary patterns and nutrient assessment) to better understand diet-disease relationships.