The role of healthcare and education systems in co-occurrence of health risk behaviours in 27 European countries.
Sommaire de l'article
Contextual factors play an important role in health and related behaviours. This study aims to examine the association of co-occurrence of five health-risk behaviours with healthcare and education contextual factors using nationally representative samples from 27 European countries.
Data were from Eurobarometer 72.3, 2009. The outcome was a count variable ranging from 0 to 5 indicating co-occurrence of five health-risk behaviours, namely smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, non-frequent fresh fruit consumption, physical inactivity and non-dental check-ups. Public expenditures on healthcare and education as a percentage of GDP and quality of healthcare and education at a country-level were used as contextual factors. A set of multilevel Poisson regression models were conducted to examine the associations between co-occurrence of health-risk behaviours and each of the contextual factors considering age, gender, marital status, urbanisation, individual socioeconomic positions (education, subjective social status or difficulty in paying bills) and GDP per capita.
The total population was 23 842. Greater expenditures on healthcare and education, and better quality of healthcare systems had negative associations with co-occurrence of health-risk behaviours in the model adjusted for all individual demographic indicators. However, statistical significance disappeared after adjusting for socioeconomic indicators and GDP per capita.
While the study highlights the importance of developing high-quality healthcare and education systems generously supported by public fund in relation to co-occurrence of health-risk behaviours, the influence of contextual factors in adopting health-related behaviours is probably attenuated by individual socioeconomic factors.