Trends in nutrient intakes, nutritional status, and correlates of undernutrition among rural children below 5 years of age: The National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau Survey 2012.
Sommaire de l'article
In spite of several national nutrition intervention programs that have been in operation since the past four decades, undernutrition continues to be an important public health problem in India.
The aim of the present study was to assess the trends in food and nutrient intakes and nutritional status of children in India below 5 years of age.
SETTING AND DESIGN
A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in ten National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau states by adopting a multistage random sampling procedure.
Data were collected on the household (HH) socioeconomic and demographic particulars, and anthropometric measurements of the children, such as their length/height and weight, were noted. A 24-h dietary recall method was used for assessing dietary intake.
Intake of all the foodstuffs except pulses, vegetables, and fats and oils declined over a period of time (1975-1979 to 2011-2012) while the intake of all the micronutrients except Vitamins A and C declined during the same period. The prevalence of undernutrition, i.e. underweight, stunting, and wasting has declined from 76%, 82%, and 27%, respectively in 1975-1979 to 42%, 44%, and 19%,respectively, in 2011-2012 among 1-5 year children. The severe form of undernutrition has also declined during the same period. The prevalence of undernutrition was significantly (P < 0.01) higher among children of illiterate mothers, those belonging to lower socioeconomic status, and those living in nuclear families.
The prevalence of undernutrition declined over the period despite the decrease in food and nutrient intake. However, the pace of decline was slower and it was attributed to improved health-care services coupled with control of communicable diseases and increase in the HHs income. Further efforts are needed to improve the literacy of parents, environmental and personal hygiene, along with the food security of HHs through a public distribution system.