Variety within a cooked meal increases meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite.
Sommaire de l'article
Effective strategies to increase dietary intake in older persons with a poor appetite are needed. Previous studies have shown that increasing diet variety may increase dietary intake. This has not been tested in older adults with a poor appetite.
We investigated if an increased variety of foods within a cooked meal results in a higher meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite.
This study was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial among 19 older (>65 years) women with a poor appetite. Two cooked meals of similar weight and energy density (except starch) were served under standardized conditions on two weekdays: a test meal consisting of three different varieties of vegetables, meat or fish, and starch components, and a control meal without variety. Participants ate ad libitum and the actual consumed amounts and their nutritional content were calculated. Data were analyzed by mixed linear models.
Average intake in energy was 427 kcal (SD 119) for the test meal with variety and 341 kcal (SD 115) for the control meal without variety. This resulted in a statistically significant (for period effects adjusted) mean difference of 79 kcal (95% CI = 25 – 134). Total meal intake in grams was also higher for the test meal with variety (48 g, 95% CI = 1 – 97) but protein intake (g) was not (3.7 g, 95% CI = -1.4 – 8.8). This was consistent for all meal components except starch and within each component three varieties were consumed equally.
The results of the present study suggest that increasing meal variety may be an effective strategy to increase energy intake in older adults with a poor appetite.