Vegetable and fruit intake and mortality from chronic disease in new zealand.
Sommaire de l'article
OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality attributable to inadequate vegetable and fruit intake in New Zealand in 1997, and the burden of disease that could be avoided in 2011 if modest increases in vegetable and fruit intake were to occur. METHODS: Comparative risk assessment methodology was used to estimate both attributable and avoidable mortality due to inadequate vegetable and fruit consumption (< 600 g/day). Vegetables and fruit were defined as all fresh, frozen, canned, dried or juiced vegetables and fruit, except potatoes, nuts, seeds and pulses. Disease outcomes assessed were mortality from ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic stroke, and lung, oesophageal, stomach and colorectal cancers. RESULTS: In 1997, mean vegetable and fruit intake was 420 g/day in males and 404 g/day in females. Inadequate vegetable and fruit intake is estimated to have contributed to 1,559 deaths (6% of all deaths) in that year, including 1,171 from ischaemic heart disease, 179 from ischaemic stroke and 209 from cancer. Modest increases in vegetable and fruit intake (40 g/day above the historic trend) could prevent 334 deaths each year from 2011, mostly from ischaemic heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate vegetable and fruit intake is an important cause of mortality in New Zealand. Small increases in vegetable and fruit intake could have a major impact on population health within a decade.