Aerial contamination of fruit through wet deposition and particulate dry deposition
Sommaire de l'article
The current state of knowledge concerning the processes and pathways which lead to the contamination of fruit crops by non-gaseous airborne contaminants is reviewed. Given the wide range of fruit canopies which occur, it is necessary to look for generic factors which affect the contribution of each of these processes and pathways to distribution through the canopy, losses from the canopy back to the atmosphere, and the fate of particle-bound substances once attached to the canopy. This latter stage represents perhaps the greatest source of uncertainty in determining levels of contamination. For wet deposition, the controlling factors appear to be the ability of the canopy surface to store precipitated water, and the interaction of the contaminant species with the leaf cuticle, which appears to act as an ion exchange medium, selectively accumulating certain ionic species. Where possible, models and parameterisations are provided for these stages. A summary is given of current data requirements for those cases where this is not possible.