Bioaccessibility of beta-carotene, lutein, and lycopene from fruits and vegetables.
Sommaire de l'article
Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that there is an association between carotenoid-rich food intakes with a low incidence in chronic diseases. Nevertheless, there is not an association between the intake of total dietary carotenoids and chronic health incidence in the European population, probably because of different carotenoid food sources and bioavailability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the small and large intestine bioaccessibilities of major dietary carotenoids from fruits and vegetables in a common diet. A bioaccessibility model that includes enzymatic digestion and in vitro colonic fermentation was employed. Lutein presented greater small intestine bioaccessibility (79%) than beta-carotene (27%) or lycopene (40%). With regard to large intestine bioaccessibility, similar amounts of lycopene and beta-carotene were released from the food matrix (57%), whereas small amounts of lutein (17%) were released. These results suggest that 91% of the beta-carotene, lutein, and lycopene contained in fruits and vegetables is available in the gut during the entire digestion process. Colonic fermentation is shown to be important for carotenoid availability in the gut.