Bioavailability of carotenoids from spinach and tomatoes.
Sommaire de l'article
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Few published studies have described the bioavailability of the different carotenoids in spinach. This was designed to evaluate the effects on plasma carotenoid concentrations of a daily consumption of spinach (rich in lutein and beta-carotene), alone or together with lycopene-rich tomato puree.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine healthy young women consumed a standard low-carotenoid diet during the pre-study phase, the spinach diet (standard diet plus 150 g spinach: 9 mg lutein, 4 mg beta-carotene) from day 0 to day 21, and then, after a wash-out period, the spinach-tomato diet (standard diet plus 150 g spinach and 25 g tomato puree: 9 mg lutein, 4.3 mg beta-carotene and 7 mg lycopene) from day 35 to day 56. The spinach and spinach-tomato supplements were consumed together with 10 g olive oil. Fasting blood samples were collected on day -7, and every week thereafter. Plasma carotenoid concentrations significantly decreased during the standard low-carotenoid diet. Lutein levels gradually increased after spinach consumption from 0.36+/-0.05 to 1.59+/-0.19 µmol/L (p<0.0001), decreased during the wash-out period from 1.59+/-0.19 to 0.62+/-0.07 µmol/L (p<0.001), and rose again after the intake of spinach-tomato puree from 0.62+/-0.07 to 1.55+/-0.17 µmol/L (p<0.0001). beta-carotene levels also increased during both dietary supplementation periods. Lycopene decreased during the spinach diet from 0.20+/-0.03 to 0.07+/-0.01 µmol/L (p<0.001) and increased during the spinach-tomato diet from 0.05+/-0.01 to 0.52+/-0.06 µmol/L (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study confirm that a regular intake of selected vegetables leads to a progressive increase in plasma carotenoid concentrations. The addition of tomato puree to spinach does not decrease lutein plasma concentrations. Furthermore, baseline plasma levels of lutein and lycopene are important variables affecting the relative increase in their levels after supplementation: ie more depleted subjects are expected to have a greater percent rise in plasma carotenoid concentrations.