Changes in breakfast frequency and composition during adolescence: The Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study, a cohort from Brazil.
Sommaire de l'article
To estimate changes over time of breakfast frequency and foods/food groups consumed at breakfast.
Cohort of 809 students aged 10-16 years old from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, enrolled in 2010, and followed for three years. Breakfast skippers were those not eating breakfast. Those with breakfast frequency of 4 or less times per week were considered irregular breakfast eaters. Changes over time of breakfast frequency and breakfast foods/food groups were analyzed by generalized estimating equations.
At baseline, overweight/obese girls had higher prevalence of irregular breakfast than those non-overweight/obese (40% vs. 26%; p = 0.005); among boys, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of irregular breakfast according to weight status. After three years, among girls there was an increase in the risk of irregular breakfast consumption (RR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.08; 1.54) and breakfast skipping (RR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.12; 2.38). Also, overweight/obese boys (RR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.89) and non-overweight/obese girls (RR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.04) had higher risk of irregular breakfast in three years, compared to baseline. After three years, boys changed the consumption of foods/food groups at breakfast and presented higher risk of decreased intake of fruits (RR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20, 2.13), sandwiches and snacks (RR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.22), chips (RR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.13), and ham (RR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.07), and lower risk of cheese intake (RR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.00). Girls had higher risk of decreased intake of fruits (RR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.47, 2.95), milk (RR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.08), chocolate powder (RR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.14) and ham (RR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.36).
Changes in breakfast patterns are different according to sex. Also, different changes in breakfast frequency according to BMI category were found. Consumption patterns of some foods/food groups have a tendency to become changed from initial to middle adolescence.