Determinants of cadmium burden levels in a population of children living in the vicinity of nonferrous smelters
Sommaire de l'article
This report covers part of the assessment of a site in northern France polluted by industrial metal emissions. Our objectives were to assess the cadmium burden in children aged 8 to 11 years and look for factors that affected it. A cross-sectional population-based study took place in 1996-1997 and included 400 children (200 in the metal-polluted area). The geometric mean of the blood cadmium (CdB) levels of children living on the polluted site was 0.51 mug/L (95% CI=[0.49-0.53]); that of the nonexposed children was 0.47 mug/l, (95% CI= [0.45-0.49])(P<0.01). The geometric mean of the urinary cadmium (CdU) levels of children living on the polluted site was 1.16 µg/g creatinine (95% CI=[1.01-1.34]); that of the nonexposed children was 0.99 µg/g creatinine (95% CI=[0.86-1.14]) (P=0.10). Mean CdB was higher among children within 4 km of a zinc smelter and consuming &GE;500ml of tap water daily (x 1.34; 95% CI=[1.14-1.51]) compared with children living more than 4 km away and consuming <500 ml of tap water daily. Independently of this association, consumption of fish and shellfish (greater than or equal to once a week vs < once a week) and homegrown vegetables ( &GE; once daily vs < once daily) was associated with higher mean CdB levels, respectively: x 1.14; 95% CI= [1.07-1.21] and x 1.25; 95% CI=[1.04-1.50]. Neither sex nor age was associated with CdB. Mean CdU was associated with paternal occupational cadmium exposure.