Diet and asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema symptom prevalence: an ecological analysis of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) data
Sommaire de l'article
Several studies have suggested that the increasing prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and eczema, could be associated with dietary factors. In the present paper, a global analysis of prevalence rates of wheeze, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema was performed in relation to diet, as defined by national food intake data.Analyses were based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) data for 6-7 and 13-14 yr old children, Symptoms of wheeze, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema symptom prevalence were regressed against per capita food intake, and adjusted for gross national product to account for economic development. Dietary data were based on 1995 Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations data for 53 of the 56 countries that took part in ISAAC phase I (1994/1995).The 13-14 year age group showed a consistent pattern of decreases in symptoms of wheeze (current and severe), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema, associated with increased per capita consumption of calories from cereal and rice, protein from cereals and nuts, starch, as well as vegetables and vegetable nutrients, The video questionnaire data for 13-14 yr olds and the ISAAC data for 6-7 yr olds shelved similar patterns for these foods.A consistent inverse relationship was seen between prevalence rates of the three conditions and the intake of starch, cereals, and vegetables, If these findings could be generalised, and if the average daily consumption of these foods increased, it is speculated that an important decrease in symptom prevalence may be achieved.Despite tremendous advances in treatment, persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection commonly experience a variety of nutritional problems, such as weight loss, fat redistribution, and obesity. We discuss basic dietary and metabolic problems as they pertain to persons with HIV infection and provide practical suggestions for their management. In all persons, changes in weight are caused by disruptions of energy balance, which can be disturbed by alterations in energy intake (effective ingestion of calories), energy expenditure (use of calories), or both. Factors that contribute to the disturbance of energy balance are discussed in the context of HIV infection. Management of weight loss and weight gain may then be directed at the affected components of energy balance. This information is intended to raise health care providers' attention to nutrition in their patients, including monitoring of weight, dietary issues, and relevant symptoms, and to encourage liaisons with experienced dietitians and exercise trainers.