Diet and blood pressure in 18-74-year-old adults: the french nutrition and health survey (enns, 2006-2007).
Sommaire de l'article
Dietary recommendations to reduce blood pressure (BP) have been widely disseminated. We investigated associations between dietary intake and BP in a national sample of adults living in France.
The survey included 1968 18-74-year-old participants in the French Nutrition and Health Survey (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé), a cross-sectional national multistage sampling study. Dietary intake and SBP and DBP were assessed using three 24-h recalls and three measurements, respectively. Mean dietary intake was compared across BP categories: previously diagnosed hypertensive and among undiagnosed optimal (SBP <120 mmHg and DBP <80 mmHg), intermediate and high (SBP ≥140 mmHg and/or DBP ≥90 mmHg) BP participants. After exclusion of previously diagnosed hypertensive participants, linear regressions were also carried out between dietary intake and SBP and DBP.
Eating habits of previously diagnosed hypertensive participants were not different from those of undiagnosed high BP participants, except higher milk consumption (P = 0.03) and lower seafood and alcohol intake (P < 0.03 and P = 0.002, respectively) in previously diagnosed hypertensive. After exclusion of them, dairy products (milk especially), fruit and vegetables, fiber and whole-grain food consumption were inversely and linearly associated with SBP (P < 0.04), whereas alcohol intake was positively associated with SBP (P < 10) and DBP (P = 0.005). Modification effect of sex was observed for saturated fatty acids intake (positive association with DPB in women) and calcium (negative association with SBP in men).
Adherence to nutritional recommendations still needs to be improved in hypertensive adults even if they are aware of their condition. In the rest of the population, proper habits regarding milk, fruit and vegetables, fiber and alcohol should decrease the risk of hypertension onset.