Diet and weight gain characteristics of pregnant women with gestational diabetes.
Sommaire de l'article
Background/Objectives:To determine if women with gestational diabetes (GD) modify their diet and nutrient intake in late pregnancy and gain more weight during pregnancy compared with women without GD.Subjects/Methods:Food and nutrient intake of 3613 pregnant women was studied using food frequency questionnaires from the Type I Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study.Results:GD was reported in 4.8% of the participating women (n=174). Women with GD gained less weight during pregnancy than those unaffected by GD (mean 9.4 vs 12.6 kg, P<0.001). Women with GD consumed more milk products (84 vs 76 g/MJ, P=0.002), cereal products (21 vs 18 g/MJ, P<0.001), vegetables (32 vs 22 g/MJ, P<0.001) and meat (16 vs 14 g/MJ, P<0.001) than unaffected women. The intake of protein (18 vs 16 percent of total daily energy intake, P<0.001) and dietary fibre (3.1 vs 2.4 g/MJ, P<0.001) was higher, whereas the intake of sugars (13.3 vs 15.0 g/MJ, P<0.001) and saturated fatty acids (3.49 vs 3.98 g/MJ, P<0.001) was lower among women with GD. The nutrient density of the diet was higher in women with GD with higher intakes of vitamins A and D, folate and iron.Conclusions:The late pregnancy diet of women with GD differed considerably from that of unaffected women. Women with GD had a higher body weight at the beginning of the pregnancy, but they gained less weight during pregnancy. These findings indicate that abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy encourages women to modify their dietary habits towards healthier food choices.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 September 2010; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.167.