Differential contribution of animal and vegetable food items on persistent organic pollutant serum concentrations in Spanish adults. Data from BIOAMBIENT.ES project.
Sommaire de l'article
Diet is considered the main source of Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) exposure in the general population, although there are still several gaps of knowledge regarding the differential contribution of main food groups. The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns that contribute to human exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs). Study population (n=1880, 18-65years old) was recruited during 2009-2010 in all the main geographical areas of Spain. For this work, exposure was estimated by chemical analyses of serum levels of 6 PCBs (n=1880), 13 OCPs (n=934), and 6 (PFASs) in a subsample of 755 (n=755). Dietary habits and covariates were gathered via self-administered questionnaires. Data analyses were performed by means of multivariable linear regression and weighted quantile sum regression. Both the consumption of animal-based and plant-based food were positively associated with the individual concentrations of p,p´-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, and PCB-congeners -138, -153, and-180. The contribution of animal-based products was 2.1-4.0× stronger except in p,p´-DDE, to which both patterns had similar contributions. In PFASs only animal food was positively associated with the exposure levels. The main animal-based contributors to PCB exposure were fish (49-64%) and eggs (19-36%), while OCP concentrations were mainly influenced by dairy products (32-48%) and fish (47-48%). PFOA and PFHxS were mainly explained by cold-meat (34-37%), fish (25-26%), and eggs (19-21%), while PFOS and PFDA were primarily influenced by fish consumption (44-77%). In the case of plant-based items, fruits (25-82%) and vegetables (18-63%) accounted for the majority of the variability of PCB and OCP concentrations. Our results highlight the relevance of dietary POP exposure as well as the need for the consideration of nutritional interventions in public health programs aiming to reduce POP exposure in the general population.