Fate of quinoxyfen residues in grapes, wine, and their processing products
Sommaire de l'article
Quinoxyfen is a new fungicide that belongs to the family of the quinolines, recently introduced to control powdery mildew (Uncinula necator). In this paper the fate of quinoxyfen residues from vine to wine and in their processing products was studied. After the last of four applications at the recommended rate, 0.38 mg/kg of residue was found on the grapes, which is under the legal limit fixed in Italy (0.5 mg/kg). The degradation rate was according to a pseudo-first-order kinetics (r = 0.964) and the half-life was 7.24 days. Vinification was carried out with and without maceration. During the vinifications without maceration < 50% of the residues passed from the grapes to the musts. Separation of the lees (8%) from the must by centrifugation caused no detectable residues in centrifuged must. At the end of fermentation with and without maceration no quinoxyfen residues were determinable in the wine. No effect on the alcoholic or malolactic fermentation was observed even in the presence of higher quinoxyfen concentrations than those found in the grapes at harvest time. During fermentation, the yeasts partially degraded the pesticides and completly adsorbed them. Bacteria, on the other hand, do not have any degradative effect on the pesticides. The raisins obtained by sun-drying did not contain any residues, whereas those obtained by oven-drying show the same amount of residues as in the fresh grapes. During the sun-drying process the fruit weight decreased by a factor of 4; the decrease in the oven-drying was equivalent. Samples of dregs and liquid lees, fortified with high levels of quinoxyfen, were double-distilled. The first dregs distillate, with an alcohol content of 32.1%, did not show any residues, whereas the first lees distillate, with an alcohol content of 34.5%, showed 7% of the initial residues. After the second lees distillation, the obtained product showed an alcoholic content of 81.2% and no residues of quinoxyfen (< 0.01 mg/kg).