Fructose consumption in the Netherlands: the Dutch national food consumption survey 2007-2010.
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Background / objectives: Despite the worldwide scientific and media attention, the actual fructose consumption in many non-US populations is not clear. The aim of this study was to estimate the fructose consumption and its main food sources in a representative sample of the general Dutch population. Subjects / methods: In all, 3817 children and adults aged 7-69 years from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were studied. Values for fructose content of the products were assigned using several food composition tables. Diet was assessed with two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The Multiple Source Method was used to take into account day-to-day variation and to estimate the habitual fructose consumption. Results: Median habitual fructose intake was 46 g/day, with an interquartile range of 35-60 g/day. In boys, the highest median intake was observed among 14- to 18-year olds: 61 g/day. In girls, those aged 9-13 years reported the highest median intake: 56 g/day. Of total fructose intake, 67% was consumed in the form of sucrose and 33% was consumed as free fructose. Soft drinks constituted the main food source of total fructose (13-29% across age and sex categories), followed by juices (9-12%), fruit (9-18%), cake and cookies (9-11%) and dairy products (6-10%).Conclusions:Fructose comprised 9% of the mean daily energy intake in the general Dutch population aged 7-69 years. The fructose consumption was somewhat lower than most recent figures from the US. The main food sources of fructose were soft drinks, juices and fruit.