High dietary intakes of phytosterol esters lower carotenoids and elevate plasma plant sterol levels with no additional cholesterol lowering.
Sommaire de l'article
Objective. To measure the effects on serum lipids and plasma phytosterols of 6.6g/d phytosterols from three foods (bread, breakfast cereal and spread) consumed for 12 weeks compared to a diet that was not enriched with phytosterols. Research Setting. Thirty-five subjects undertook a non-randomised, single blind study consisting of a two week baseline period, six weeks on a high phytosterol intake, six weeks on a high phytosterol intake plus increased fruit and vegetable with a final two week wash out period. Results. Serum total cholesterol fell by 8.3 % from 6.59 to 6.04 mmol/L, and LDL cholesterol fell by 12.6 % from 4.44 to 3.88 mmol/L. Plasma phytosterol levels increased by 45% (sitosterol) and 105% (campesterol). Cholesterol-adjusted plasma -and – carotene levels decreased by 19-23%, lutein by 14% and lycopene by 11%. Levels of -carotene and lutein rose with extra fruit and vegetables. Only lycopene failed to rise during the washout phase. There were no significant changes in biochemical parameters. Conclusions. Serum LDL cholesterol lowering with 6.6g/d of ingested phytosterols was in the range seen with 1.6-3.2g/d of phytosterols. Lowering of plasma carotenoids was greater than that seen with lower phytosterol intakes and was partially reversed by increased fruit and vegetable intake.