High intensity lifestyle intervention and long-term impact on weight and clinical outcomes.
Sommaire de l'article
Obesity increases the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular events, with a corresponding growth in medical costs. High intensity lifestyle intervention (HILI) is the cornerstone for weight management. We assessed the effectiveness of clinic-based HILI on weight loss and associated clinical outcomes by duration of program participation and comorbid conditions.
This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who enrolled in HILI weight management programs at Health Management Resources (HMR) clinics located across the U.S. Patients completed health risk assessments (HRA) and were enrolled for up to 24 months at the time of follow-up HRA. HMR programs provide weekly group coaching to achieve reduced calorie intake, increased fruit/vegetable intake, and physical activity ≥2,000 kcal/wk. A Markov model predicted avoidance of diabetes and cardiovascular events and projected cost savings due to weight loss.
Of the 500 patients included in the analysis, 67% were female and mean age was 54.1 years (s.d. 11.6). The baseline weight and BMI were 243.5 lbs (range 144.0-545.0) and 38.8 kg/m2 (range 25.4-85.0), respectively. Overall, patients lost an average of 47.4 lbs (18.9% of initial body weight [IBW]); the amount of weight loss was consistent among those with diabetes/pre-diabetes (50%), high/moderate risk for dyslipidemia (60%), hypertension/pre-hypertension (86%), and severe obesity (37%). The mean IBW lost was 16.4%, 19.3%, 20.7% for ≤6 months (n = 165), 7-12 months (n = 140), 13-24 months (n = 195) of program participation, respectively. The simulation model estimated 22 diabetes and 30 cardiovascular events and $1,992,370 medical costs avoided over 5 years in the 500 patients evaluated.
Patients in the HMR clinic-based HILI program achieved substantial weight loss regardless of duration of program participation, risk profile and comorbid status. The HMR program could be an effective strategy to prevent costly diabetes and cardiovascular events, particularly in high risk patients.