Hypertension 2020: confronting tomorrow’s problem today.
Sommaire de l'article
SUMMARY 1. In developed countries, the major burden of disease is due to chronic diseases, such as heart disease and stroke. In contrast, the major burden of disease among people in developing countries has been due largely to diseases caused by malnutrition, poor sanitation and infection. In recent years, with increasing economic and demographic development, there has been a shift in developing countries from diseases caused by poverty towards chronic, non-communicable, lifestyle-related diseases. The rapid emergence of these chronic diseases has not occurred with a similarly rapid decline in infectious diseases. Therefore, these developing countries are experiencing high rates of both infectious and chronic diseases. 2. The increase in chronic diseases in developing countries has been brought about by the increasing prevalence of risk factors, such as increased alcohol consumption, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and low fruit and vegetable intake. In parallel with this, there is also increased evidence of high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. 3. The preventive strategies required to reverse this trend for these emerging diseases include the education of public health professionals, the introduction of surveillance activities to monitor changes in risk factors, the introduction of health promotion, the development of prevention research and improved advocacy for disease prevention programmes. Experience from other countries provides evidence that prevention programmes can work. The global challenge is to ensure that implementation of such programmes in the world’s developing nations does not come too late.