Implications of chronic kidney disease for dietary treatment in cardiovascular disease.
Sommaire de l'article
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) often accompanies cardiovascular disease (CVD). Trends foretelling a greater burden of CKD and CVD are largely a result of increasing frequencies of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Nutritional therapy occupies a critical role in reducing risk factors and preventing progressive damage to the kidneys and heart. Nutritional assessment and treatment should take into account both health concerns. This review examines several diet components and eating styles for efficacy in the treatment of these conditions. A variety of dietary regimens claim to provide health benefits, but rigorous scientific validation of long-term efficacy is frequently lacking. An urgent need exists for eating styles that reduce risk of chronic diseases and that are acceptable and achievable in free-living populations. We describe our ongoing study, a randomized controlled trial comparing the American Heart Association Step II diet and a Mediterranean diet, in survivors of a first myocardial infarction. The primary end point is a composite of mortality and major CVD events. Because many in this population have CKD, indicators of kidney damage and function are prespecified secondary end points. Results of this trial should provide insight into optimal dietary interventions for persons with both CVD and CKD.