Interactions between traditional regional determinants and socio-economic status on dietary patterns in a sample of french men.
Sommaire de l'article
The aim of the present study was to assess the respective contributions of regional and socio-economic factors to dietary pattern. We used the data from the final MONICA (MONItoring of trends and determinants in Cardiovascular disease) population survey conducted in the three French centres in 1995-7 among a representative sample of 976 men aged 45-64 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-d record method. Dietary patterns were identified by a factor analysis, based on fifteen food items. An analysis of variance was then used to study their relationship with regional and socio-economic determinants. Two major dietary patterns were identified: a ‘Western diet’, characterized by high intakes of sugar and sweets, grains, butter, added fats, eggs, potatoes and cheese; a ‘prudent diet’, mainly distinguished by high intakes of fruit, vegetables, olive oil and fish and low intakes of alcohol, high-fat meat and potatoes. Strong associations were mostly observed with the ‘prudent diet’ pattern, with a significant relationship with region, educational and income-tax levels, leisure-time physical activity and smoking status. There was also a statistically significant interaction between region and educational level (P=0.05), and between region and income-tax level (P=0.03), indicating that the influence of socio-economic factors is different among regions. In conclusion, these results indicate large regional and socio-economic differences in the dietary patterns of this French male population. When considering the ‘prudent diet’ pattern, they also suggest that traditional regional influences may now be overcome by socio-economic determinants.