Liver injury suppressing compounds from avocado (persea americana)
Sommaire de l'article
To evaluate the protective activity of fruits against liver injury, 22 different fruits were :fed :to rats with liver damage caused by D-galactosamine, a powerful liver toxin; As measured by changes in the levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), avocado showed extraordinarily potent liver injury suppressing activity. Five active compounds were isolated and their structures determined. These were all fatty acid derivatives, of which three, namely, (2E,5E,12Z, 15Z)-1-hydroxyheneicosa-2,5,12,15-tetraen-4-one, (2E,12Z;15Z)-1-hydroxyheneicosa-2,12,15-trien-4-one, and (5E,12Z)-2-hydroxy-4-oxoheneicosa-5,12-dien-1-yl acetate, were novel.A group of imidazo[1,2-a]quinoxalines have been synthesised from quinoxaline by condensation of an appropriate haloester or intramolecular cyclisation of a keto moiety on an intracyclic nitrogen atom. The reactivity of the heterocycle was explored through diverse reactions such as electrophilic substitution, lithiation and halogen-metal exchange to give access to a new series of derivatives. Confirmation of their structure was mainly performed by NMR, after careful assignment of the signals in comparison to previous attributions made on the parent imidazo[1,2-a]quinoxaline and discussion of available data in the literature. The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor activity of some of these derivatives has been assessed on isoenzymes type III and type IV. Compound 15, 4-(methylamino)imidazo[1,2-a]quinoxaline-2-carbonitrile, exhibited potent relaxant activity on smooth muscle, with a potency similar to the one measured with SCA 40, its structural analogue in the imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine series.