Polyphenol exposure and risk of type 2 diabetes: dose-response meta-analyses and systematic review of prospective cohort studies.
Sommaire de l'article
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired glucose metabolism. Bioactive compounds in fruits and vegetables such as polyphenols have been suggested to influence glucose metabolism.
The aim of the current study was to systematically review the literature and conduct dose-response meta-analyses to summarize evidence of polyphenol exposure in association with incident type 2 diabetes.
Prospective epidemiologic studies published before January 2018 were searched through 2 databases. Log-transformed multivariable adjusted hazard and odds ratios were combined in a random-effects model. Meta-analyses comparing extreme quantiles of polyphenol exposure were further explored with the use of linear and nonlinear dose-response meta-analyses.
Eighteen studies investigated the association between polyphenols (51 different compounds in total) and type 2 diabetes. A comparison of extreme quantiles revealed inverse associations for intakes of polyphenols (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.93), flavonoids (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.96), flavonols (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.98), flavan-3-ols (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99), catechins (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.97), anthocyanidins (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.91), isoflavones (HR: 0.92; 0.86, 0.97), daidzein (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.95), genistein (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99), and stilbenes (HR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.72), and biomarkers of daidzein (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.99) and genistein (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.99). In the dose-response meta-analysis, nonlinear associations were observed for intakes of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanones, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, and biomarkers of genistein. A linear dose-response association was observed for phenolic acids.
This study adds to the evidence showing that diets rich in polyphenols, and particularly flavonoids, play a role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. For most associations evidence for nonlinearity was found, suggesting a recommendable amount of intake associated with the lowest risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, future studies are warranted in which nonlinear associations are further explored.