[Primary prevention of bladder cancer : what is new?]
Sommaire de l'article
Bladder cancer (Bc) with an incidence of 8.6% ranks fourth in males and with an incidence of 3.5% ranks eighth in females in Germany. The study of Cole demonstrating that coffee drinking poses a risk for developing Bc raised interest in primary prevention. In the meantime, however, 42 case-control studies could disprove this finding. Cigarette smoking raises the Bc risk threefold. Responsible are among others arylamines which are activated in the liver, but also detoxified. A genetically caused lack of transferases is responsible for every third Bc. Another risk factor is contributed by permanent hair dyes. Similarly to smoking, an arylamine is taken up by the body and has to be detoxified by transferases in the liver and skin. Furthermore, a chronic urinary tract infection may be related to Bc. Thus, the best prevention is the reduction of risk factors.A high fluid intake – irrespective of its kind – reduces the Bc risk by approximately 50%. Particularly smokers should realize that they can lower their risk of developing Bc by almost 70% with a high fluid intake. A connection between alcohol consumption and Bc development has never been shown. Vitamins A, B, and C were extensively investigated in epidemiological studies. Usefulness for primary prevention of Bc was not convincingly demonstrated. Interestingly, folic acid-containing food may reduce the Bc risk for smokers. Fruits and vegetables possess only a weak preventive efficacy. However, copious fruit consumption may reduce the risk for smokers by almost 50%.The trace element selenium does not possess a proven protection; however, it has been shown that persons with a high selenium plasma level have a lower incidence of Bc. Among probiotics yogurt containing Lactobacillus casei is particularly useful in smokers according to one study. Finally, the preventive action of NSAIDs is controversial. Surprisingly, users of analgetics have a low incidence of Bc.