Prospective relevance of fruit and vegetable consumption and salt intake during adolescence for blood pressure in young adulthood.
Sommaire de l'article
Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and salt intake are known dietary influences on blood pressure (BP) in adults, but data on their long-term relevance during growth for later BP are rare. We aimed to examine the independent and concomitant influences of adolescent FV and salt intakes on BP in young adulthood.
In total, 206 participants (108 males) provided a plausible BP measurement in young adulthood (18-25 years) as well as three repeated 3-day weighed dietary records, 24-h urine samples and BP measurements during adolescence (11-16 years). FV intake was assessed based on dietary records and its urinary biomarkers such as potassium, oxalate and hippuric acid. Urinary sodium chloride (NaCl) was used to estimate salt intake. Prospective associations of adolescent FV and salt intake with adult BP were examined in sex-stratified linear regression models.
In multivariable models, a 100 g higher FV intake during adolescence was prospectively related to 0.9 mmHg lower systolic BP in young adult females (P = 0.02), but not in males (P = 0.8). Biomarkers supported the findings for FV regarding systolic BP. Concurrently, a 1 g higher salt intake was related to 1.7 mmHg higher systolic BP in young men only (P = 0.01). For diastolic BP, results were inconsistent.
Our findings suggest that in adolescent healthy girls, a higher FV intake may be more relevant for BP than a reduced salt intake and the opposite appears to apply for boys. The physiological implications of the observed sex-specific diet-BP relationships need deeper examination.