Self-regulation training enhances dietary self-efficacy and dietary fiber consumption
Sommaire de l'article
To evaluate the effectiveness of incorporating two self-regulation strategies (goal setting and self-monitoring) into a nutrition education class to enhance dietary fiber self-efficacy and foster a positive change in dietary fiber consumption.
College students in an introductory nutrition class (n = 113) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: goal setting, self-monitoring, goal setting and self-monitoring, and no goal setting and no self-monitoring. Twenty-six college students from an introductory health class served as the control group.
The main and interaction effects of goal setting and self-monitoring on postintervention variables were analyzed using analysis of covariance with baseline intake levels as the covariate. Analysis of variance was used to examine differences in the mean changes between the groups. Path analysis was conducted to analyze the causal linkage among the pretest and intervening variables to predict postintervention knowledge, self-efficacy, and fiber consumption.
Goal setting had a significant main effect on dietary fiber self-efficacy and on dietary fiber consumption Subjects who set goals scored 15% higher on the dietary fiber self-efficacy scale and consumed 91% more fiber than subjects who did not set goals. Self-monitoring had no significant main effect on either dietary fiber self-efficacy or dietary fiber consumption. There was no significant interaction between goal setting and self-monitoring. Changes in dietary fiber scores differed between the groups. Increases in dietary fiber for the goal setting and self-monitoring group were significantly higher than the goal-setting, self-monitoring, no goal setting and no self-monitoring, and control groups. In addition, the goal setting only group had significantly greater increases in fiber intake than the self-monitoring, no goal setting and no self-monitoring, and control groups. Changes in self-efficacy scores were significantly different between the groups. The goal setting and goal setting and self-monitoring groups had significantly higher self-efficacy scores than the control group. Path analysis revealed that both goal setting and self-monitoring affected dietary fiber consumption through knowledge and dietary fiber self-efficacy, goal setting had a strong direct effect on fiber consumption, and postintervention knowledge affected fiber consumption only through self-efficacy.
Our findings suggest that dietary change requires active self-regulation of food intake. Combining goal setting and self-monitoring significantly enhances dietary behavior change. This strategy can easily be incorporated into nutrition education or counseling programs to enhance dietary behavior change.