The phlame (promoting healthy lifestyles: alternative models’ effects) firefighter study: outcomes of two models of behavior change.
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OBJECTIVE: PHLAME's (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models' Effects) objective was to assess and compare two means to promote healthy lifestyles.
METHODS: Prospective trial among 599 firefighters randomized by station to 1) team-centered curriculum, 2) one-on-one motivational interviewing (MI), and 3) controls. Assessment included dietary behavior, physical activity, weight, and general well-being at baseline and 12 months. Program effects were determined using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) based approach, and models for relationships were evaluated with path analysis.
RESULTS: Both interventions were acceptable and delivered with high fidelity. The team and MI programs increased fruit and vegetable consumption (P < 0.01 and 0.05, respectively) and general well-being (P < 0.01). Significantly less weight gain occurred in both (P < 0.05). A cross-sectional model was consistent with mediation differing between interventions.
CONCLUSIONS: Both a team-centered and individual-oriented intervention promoted healthy behaviors. The scripted team curriculum is innovative, exportable, and may enlist influences not accessed with individual formats.