Ultra-processed food consumption and adiposity trajectories in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents: ELANA study.
Sommaire de l'article
In Brazil, the increase in obesity rates has been accompanied by increased consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF). The objective of this paper was to evaluate body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (%BF) trajectories in adolescents over a 3-year follow-up according to the frequency of UPF consumption.
Data of three consecutive years (2010, 2011, and 2012) were obtained from the Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study (ELANA) that aimed to assess changes in anthropometric indicators of nutritional status, and 1035 adolescents enrolled in the 1st year of high school from six schools (four private and two public) in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were included. At three follow-ups, they had their weights and heights measured. Body composition was measured at the first and second follow-ups. Mixed linear regression models were used to estimate BMI and %BF trajectories based on quartiles of UPF intake, adjusting for type of school, sex, physical activity, and underreporting.
Compared to their counterparts in the 1st quartile, adolescents in the 4th quartile of UPF consumption had a lower daily intake of fruits, cooked vegetables, and raw vegetables and a higher intake of total sugar and physical activity levels (p < 0.001). There was an inverse association between UPF consumption and BMI both at baseline and at follow-up. Values for %BF followed the same trend. Adolescents in the 4th quartile had the greatest level of physical activity and lowest total energy intake.
This study confirmed that greater intake of UPF is a marker of an unhealthy diet, but did not support the hypothesis of a high rate of change in BMI associated with greater UPF consumption, even after adjusting for physical activity.