Aubergine

To print
Caloric intake
-
mg Potassium
Produit cuit (au four/rôti)
seasonality of the product
summer
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D

Description

  • Aubergine (Solanum melongena L.) belongs to the Solanaceae family.
  • The aubergine is a fruit native to South East Asia. It only began to be grown in Europe in significant quantities in the mid-19th century (Ctifl, 2003). It is commonly consumed as a vegetable.
  • In Europe, aubergine is mainly produced in ItalySpain and Romania (Eurostat, 2016).

PHYSICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS

    • Aubergine is a large size fruit (Ge, 2013). It weighs 225 g on average (Les fruits et légumes frais).
    • An aubergine can be white, green, red, purple or black, either uniformly or with streaks (Ctifl, 2003).
    • The pigments responsible for its purple colour are anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-rutinoside (D3R) and nasunin (NAS)) (Mennella, 2012). They also have the ability to increase plant resistance to stress (Li, 2018).
    • Anthocyanin biosynthesis is regulated by light. In the aubergine cultivar Lanshan Hexian, the colour is revealed after two days of exposure to light (Li, 2018).
    • Aubergine is a significant source of polyphenol oxidase. This enzyme is responsible for browning the flesh of the aubergine when it is cut (Mishra, 2012).
    • The fruit also contains glycoalkaloids and saponins, nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites responsible for the typical bitter taste of aubergine flesh (Lelario, 2019).
    • The colour, size and shape of the aubergine vary according to variety (Les fruits et légumes frais).

COMPOSITION CHARACTERISTICS (excluding macronutrients, vitamins and minerals)

    • Aubergine contains polyphenolic acids. These have beneficial effects on health thanks to their protective capacity against certain chronic diseases, such as cancer or arthritis. Of these different acids, chlorogenic acid represents up to 90% of the total phenolic acids present in this fruit (Kaushik, 2019).
    • The phenolic acid content in the flesh of aubergines varies between cultivars. Wild relatives of aubergine generally have higher diversity and concentrations of phenolic acids than modern cultivated varieties (Kaushik, 2019).
    • Glycoalkaloids in aubergine play an important role in the defence of the plants against parasites. They have a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-cancer activity, and many are associated with the treatment of several diseases such as Alzheimer’s and myasthenia gravis (Lelario, 2019).
    • A Chinese team evaluated the effects of continuous intake of aubergine powder or placebo on blood pressure (BP) in 100 stressed participants divided into three subgroups: normal BP, high BP or grade 1 hypertension: Aubergine powder intake significantly decreased diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at week 8 in the normal-high BP group and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP at week 12 in all three groups, compared to the placebo groups. This antihypertensive effect is attributed to the choline esters, including acetylcholine, which are very present in aubergine (Nishimura, 2019).
  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual 2020. Consultée le 04/08/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual https://ciqual.anses.fr/
  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual pour le calcul des apports nutritionnels CALNUT 2020. Consultée le 14/09/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual https://ciqual.anses.fr/
  • Ctifl. L’aubergine. Paris : Ctifl, 159 p
  • Ge HY, Liu Y, Zhang J, Han HQ, Li HZ, Shao WT, Chen HY. Simple sequence repeat-based association analysis of fruit traits in eggplant (Solanum melongena). Genet Mol Res. 2013;12(4):5651-63.
  • Les fruits et légumes frais. L’aubergine : présentation, production, consommation [en ligne]. [consulté le 4 mars 2020]. Disponible sur: https://www.lesfruitsetlegumesfrais.com/fruits-legumes/legumes-fruits/aubergine/carte-identite
  • Kaushik P. Genetic Analysis for Fruit Phenolics Content, Flesh Color, and Browning Related Traits in Eggplant (Solanum melongena).International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019;20(12):2990.
  • Lelario F, De Maria S, Rivelli AR, Russo D, Milella L, Bufo SA, et al. A Complete Survey of Glycoalkaloids Using LC-FTICR-MS and IRMPD in a Commercial Variety and a Local Landrace of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and their Anticholinesterase and Antioxidant Activities. Toxins. 2019;11(4):230.
  • Li J, He Y-J, Zhou L, Liu Y, Jiang M, Ren L, et al. Transcriptome profiling of genes related to light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) before purple color becomes evident. BMC Genomics. 2018;19(1):201.
  • Mennella G, Lo Scalzo R, Fibiani M, D’Alessandro A, Francese G, Toppino L, Acciarri N, de Almeida AE, Rotino GL. Chemical and bioactive quality traits during fruit ripening in eggplant (S. melongena L.) and allied species. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60(47):11821-31.
  • Mishra BB, Gautam S, Sharma A. Purification and characterisation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from eggplant (Solanum melongena). Food Chem. 2012 ;134(4):1855-61.
  • Neveu V, Perez-Jiménez J, Vos F, Crespy V, du Chaffaut L, Mennen L, Knox C, Eisner R, Cruz J, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2010) Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database, doi: 10.1093/database/bap024. Full text (free access)
  • Nishimura M, Suzuki M, Takahashi R, Yamaguchi S, Tsubaki K, Fujita T, et al. Daily Ingestion of Eggplant Powder Improves Blood Pressure and Psychological State in Stressed Individuals: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study. Nutrients. 2019;11(11):2797.
  • Règlement (CE) N° 1924/2006 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 20 décembre 2006 concernant les allégations nutritionnelles et de santé portant sur les denrées alimentaires.
  • Règlement (UE) N°432/2012 de la Commission du 16 mai 2012 établissant une liste des allégations de santé autorisées portant sur les denrées alimentaires, autres que celles faisant référence à la réduction du risque de maladie ainsi qu’au développement et à la santé infantiles.
  • Règlement (UE) n°1169/2011 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 25 octobre 2011 concernant l’information des consommateurs sur les denrées alimentaires, modifiant les règlements (CE) n°1924/2006 et (CE) n°1925/2006 du Parlement européen et de Conseil et abrogeant la directive 87/250/CEE de la Commission, la directive 90/496/CEE du Conseil, la directive 1999/10/CE de la Commission, la directive 200/13/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil, les directives 2002/67/CE et 2008/5/CE de la Commission et le règlement (CE) n°608/2004 de la Commission.
  • Silman I, Sussman JL. Acetylcholinesterase: how is structure related to function? Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2008;175(1-3):3-10.
  • Talesa VN. Acetylcholinesterase in Alzheimer’s disease. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. 2001;122(6): 1961–9.
Composition and analysis