Estimating acute and chronic exposure of children and adults to chlorpyrifos in fruit and vegetables based on the new, lower toxicology data.
Sommaire de l'article
This paper presents, for the first time, results for chlorpyrifos (CHLP) in Polish fruits and vegetables over the course of a long period of research, 2007-2016, with toxicological aspects. The challenge of this study was to re-evaluate the impact of chlorpyrifos residues in fruit and vegetables on health risk assessed via acute and chronic exposure based on old and new, lower, established values of: Average Daily Intakes (ADIs)/Acute Reference Doses (ARfDs) and Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). A total of 3 530 samples were collected, and CHLP in the range of 0.005-1.514 mg/kg was present in 10.2% of all samples. The MRL was exceeded in 0.7% of all samples (MRL established in 2009-2015), and recalculation yielded a much greater number of violations for the new MRL (2016), which exceeded 2.9% of all samples. Acute exposure to CHLP calculated according to the old, higher toxicological data (0.10 mg/kg bw/day), does not exceed 14% of its respective ARfDs for adults and both groups of children, but when calculated for incidental cases according to the current value (ARfD 0.005 mg/kg bw) for infants and toddlers, was above 100% of its respective ARfDs in: white cabbage (263.65% and 108.24%), broccoli (216.80% and 194.72%) and apples (153.20% and 167.70%). The chronic exposure calculated for both newly established ADI values (0.001 mg/kg bw/day and 0.100 mg/kg bw/day) appears to be relatively low for adults and children.