Parsnip

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Apport calorique icone
Caloric intake
90,80 kcal per 100g
Photo du composant Water
73,60 g Water
Photo du composant Fibers
5,60 g Fibers
Photo du composant Carbohydrates
16,60 g Carbohydrates
Photo du composant Potassium
510 mg Potassium
Photo du composant Vitamin B9
80,10 µg Vitamin B9
Cooked product (stewed)
seasonality of the product
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Description

  • Parsnips (Pastinaca sativa L.) belong to the Apiaceae family.
  • They are native to Europe (Rubatzky, 1997).
  • Parsnip is a biennial plant with a fleshy taproot (Péron, 2006)
  • The root is eaten raw or cooked.

PHYSICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS

  • Parsnips are creamy white in colour and can take many forms:
    • top-shaped, up to 15 cm in diameter (early variety – round parsnip),
    • conical shape, ranging from 20 to 40 cm in length (half-long and long parsnips) (Péron, 2006).
  • Parsnips have a strong odour (Péron, 2006) and a sweet taste (Philipps & Rix, 1994).

RAW

The following values are approximate and depend on variety, season, ripeness, cultivation conditions, etc. Parsnips provide an average of 58.30 calories (kcal) per 100 g, i.e. 245 kJ.

COMPOSITION TABLES

For each nutrient, the tables provide information on the content, minimum and maximum values, as well as the percentage of the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for 100 g net of parsnip, raw.

MACRONUTRIENTS

Constituent (g) Average content Min-Max
per 100g
NRV%
Water - 79,50 - 84,60 -
Fibers 4,70 4 - 4,90 -
Carbohydrates 10,10 - 3,88
of which Sugar 4,80 - 5,33
Lipids 0,40 0,30 - 0,50 0,57
of which Saturated fatty acids 0,063 0,05 - 0,075 0,32
Protein 1,54 1,20 - 3,13 3,08
Constituent (g) Amount Min-Max NRV%
Water Ciqual 2020 - -
Fibers Ciqual 2020 - -
Carbohydrates Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
dont Sugar Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Lipids Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
dont Saturated fatty acids Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Protein Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011

Zoom on carbohydrates
  • The energy of the raw parsnip comes mainly from its carbohydrates, at 10.10 g per 100 g.
  • This is well above the average amount of carbohydrates found in raw vegetables (3.58 g per 100 g).
  • Raw parsnips are low in sugar* (4.80 g per 100 g) as they contain no more than 5 g per 100 g.
Zoom on fibres
  • Raw parsnip is a source of fibre* as it provides more than 3 g per 100 g, i.e. 4.70 g of fibre per 100 g.
  • This amount is higher than the average quantity of fibre found in raw vegetables (2.21 g per 100 g).
Zoom on proteins
  • Its protein content (1.54 g per 100 g) is lower than the average amount found in raw vegetables (1.69 g of protein per 100 g).
Zoom on lipids
  • The amount of fat in raw parsnip (0.40 g per 100 g) is lower than the average quantity found in raw vegetables (1.09 g per 100 g).
  • Raw parsnips are fat-free* as they contain less than 0.5 g of fat per 100 g.

*Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. 

MINERALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS

Constituent Average content Min-Max
per 100g
NRV%
Calcium (mg) 45,50 36 - 74 5,69
Chloride (mg) - - -
Copper (mg) 0,13 0,086 - 0,23 13
Iron (mg) 0,70 0,59 - 0,89 5
Iodine (µg) 0,25 - 0,17
Magnesium (mg) 29,50 23,80 - 39,90 7,87
Manganese (mg) 0,48 0,25 - 0,63 24
Phosphorus (mg) 82,50 71 - 140 11,79
Potassium (mg) 505 375 - 785 25,25
Selenium (µg) 0,20 NC - 0,60 0,36
Sodium (mg) 8 2,60 - 13,80 -
Zinc (mg) 0,72 0,49 - 1,40 7,20
Constituent Amount Min-Max NRV%
Calcium (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Chloride (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Copper (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Iron (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Iodine (µg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Magnesium (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Manganese (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Phosphorus (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Potassium (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Selenium (µg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Sodium (mg) CIqual 2020 - -
Zinc (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011

Zoom on minerals and trace elements
  • Raw parsnips are a source of:
    • potassium as they provide 25.25% of DRVs, i.e. 505 mg per 100 g;
    • manganese as they provide 24% of DRVs, i.e. 0.48 g per 100 g.
  • According to the Ciqual 2020 table, whether raw or cooked, parsnips are the 3rd   vegetable with the highest potassium content.
  • Raw parsnip is also the 3rd vegetable with the highest manganese content.
  • Its copper and phosphorus content is also significant. It contains the equivalent of:
    • 13% of DRVs for copper, i.e. 0.13 mg per 100 g;
    • 11.79% of DRVs for phosphorus, i.e. 82.50 mg per 100 g.
  • The amount of other minerals and trace elements is less than 8% of DRVs.

VITAMINS

Constituent Average content Min-Max
per 100g
NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) - - -
Vitamin A equivalent (µg) - - -
Vitamin B1 (mg) 0,09 0,061 - 0,14 8,18
Vitamin B2 (mg) 0,12 0,05 - 0,31 8,57
Vitamin B3 (mg) 1,95 0,70 - 4,85 12,19
Vitamin B5 (mg) 0,60 - 10
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0,10 0,078 - 0,15 7,14
Vitamin B9 (µg) 67 49,30 - 82,60 33,50
Vitamin C (mg) 11,50 3 - 17 14,38
Vitamin E (mg) 1,90 1,49 - 2,59 15,83
Vitamin K1 (µg) 22,50 - 30
Constituent Amount Min-Max NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) Ciqual 2020 - -
Vitamin A equivalent (µg) Calcul à partir de la valeur Provitamine A Béta-carotène* - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B1 (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B2 (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B3 (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B5 (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B6 (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B9 (µg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin C (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin E (mg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin K1 (µg) Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011

Zoom on vitamins
  • Raw parsnip is high in:
    • vitamin B9 as it provides the equivalent of 33.50% of DRVs, i.e. 67 µg per 100 g;
    • vitamin K1 as it provides the equivalent of 30% of DRVs, i.e. 22.50 µg per 100 g.
  • It is also a source of vitamin E as it provides the equivalent of 15.83% of DRVs, i.e. 1.90 mg per 100 g.
  • Raw parsnips contain significant amounts of vitamin C, vitamin B3 and vitamin B5. They provide the equivalent of:
    • 14.38% of DRVs for vitamin C, i.e. 11.50 mg per 100 g;
    • 12.19% of DRVs for vitamin B3, i.e. 1.95 mg per 100 g;
    • 10% of DRVs for vitamin B5, i.e. 0.60 mg per 100 g.
  • The quantity of other vitamins represents less than 9% of DRVs.

*Calculation made: Beta Carotene / 6 + retinol 

POLYPHENOLS

Constituent (mg) Average content Min-Max
per 100mg
Flavonoids (mg) 0,98 0,98 - 0,98
of which Flavonols (mg) 0,98 0,98 - 0,98
Lignanes (mg) 0,05 0,03 - 0,05
Total polyphenols 1,03 1,01 - 1,03
Constituent (mg) Amount Min-Max
Flavonoids Phenol explorer 3.6 Méthode utilisée : Chromatographie après hydrolyse -
dont Flavonols Phenol explorer 3.6 Méthode utilisée : Chromatographie après hydrolyse -
Lignanes Phenol explorer 3.6 Méthode utilisée : Chromatographie après hydrolyse -
Total polyphenols Phenol explorer 3.6 Méthode utilisée : Chromatographie après hydrolyse -

Zoom on polyphenols
  • Polyphenols are substances with an antioxidant effect.
  • Flavonols, being part of flavonoids, are mainly present in raw parsnip composites, representing 95.15% of total polyphenols identified.
  • Next come lignans, representing 4.85% of total polyphenols.

STEWED

The following values are approximate and depend on variety, season, ripeness, cultivation conditions, etc. Stewed parsnips provide an average of 90.80 calories (kcal) per 100 g, i.e. 383 kJ.

COMPOSITION TABLES

For each nutrient, the tables provide information on the content, minimum and maximum values, as well as the percentage of the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for 100 g net of stewed parsnip.

MACRONUTRIENTS

Constituent (g) Average content Min-Max
per 100g
NRV%
Water 73,6 - -
Fibers 5,60 - -
Carbohydrates 16,60 - 6,38
of which Sugar 6,20 - 6,89
Lipids 0,50 - 0,71
of which Saturated fatty acids 0,13 - 0,65
Protein 1,94 NC - 2 3,88
Constituent (g) Amount Min-Max NRV%
Water Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - -
Fibers Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - -
Carbohydrates Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
dont Sugar Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Lipids Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
dont Saturated fatty acids Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Protein Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011

Zoom on carbohydrates
  • Its energy comes mainly from its carbohydrates, at 16.60 g per 100 g.
  • This amount is well above the average quantity of carbohydrates found in cooked vegetables (4.73 g per 100 g).
  • These are mainly sucrose (6.20 g per 100 g) and starch (5 g per 100 g).
Zoom on fibres
  • Stewed parsnips are a source of fibre* as they provide more than 3 g per 100 g, i.e. 5.60 g of fibre per 100 g.
  • This amount is higher than the average quantity of fibre present in cooked vegetables (2.05 g per 100 g).
Zoom on proteins
  • Its protein content (1.94 g per 100 g) is slightly lower than the average amount found in cooked vegetables (2.06 g of protein per 100 g).
Zoom on lipids
  • The amount of fat in stewed parsnips (0.50 g per 100 g) is lower than the average quantity found in cooked vegetables (0.81 g per 100 g).
  • Stewed parsnips are fat-free* as they contain less than 0.5 g of fat per 100 g.

*Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. 

MINERALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS

Constituent Average content Min-Max
per 100g
NRV%
Calcium (mg) 44 - 5,50
Chloride (mg) 95,48 - 11,94
Copper (mg) 0,14 - 14
Iron (mg) 0,37 - 2,64
Iodine (µg) < 20 - -
Magnesium (mg) 25 - 6,67
Manganese (mg) 0,16 - 8
Phosphorus (mg) 74 - 10,57
Potassium (mg) 510 - 25,50
Selenium (µg) < 20 - -
Sodium (mg) 7 - -
Zinc (mg) 0,35 - 3,50
Constituent Amount Min-Max NRV%
Calcium (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Chloride (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Copper (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Iron (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Iodine (µg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Magnesium (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Manganese (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Phosphorus (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Potassium (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Selenium (µg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Sodium (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - -
Zinc (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011

Zoom on minerals and trace elements
  • Stewed parsnips are a source of potassium as they provide 25.50% of DRVs, i.e. 510 mg per 100 g.
  • According to the Ciqual 2020 table, whether raw or cooked, parsnips are the 3rd vegetable with the highest potassium content.
  • Its copper, chloride and phosphorus content is also significant. It contains the equivalent of:
    • 14% of DRVs for copper, i.e. 0.14 mg per 100 g;
    • 11.94% of DRVs for chloride, i.e. 95.48 mg per 100 g;
    • 10.57% of DRVs for phosphorus, i.e. 74 mg per 100 g.
  • The amount of other minerals and trace elements is less than 9% of DRVs.

VITAMINS

Constituent Average content Min-Max
per 100g
NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) < 5 - -
Vitamin A equivalent (µg) < 0,83 - -
Vitamin B1 (mg) 0,089 - 8,09
Vitamin B2 (mg) 0,056 - 4
Vitamin B3 (mg) 1,53 - 9,56
Vitamin B5 (mg) 0,41 - 6,83
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0,079 - 5,64
Vitamin B9 (µg) 80,1 - 40,05
Vitamin C (mg) 7,92 - 9,90
Vitamin E (mg) 1,83 - 15,25
Vitamin K1 (µg) < 0,80 - -
Constituent Amount Min-Max NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - -
Vitamin A equivalent (µg) Calcul à partir de la valeur Provitamine A Béta-carotène* - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B1 (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B2 (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B3 (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B5 (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B6 (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B9 (µg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin C (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin E (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin K1 (µg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2018) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011

Zoom on vitamins
  • Stewed parsnips are high in vitamin B9 as they provide the equivalent of 40.05% of DRVs, i.e. 80.10 µg per 100 g.
  • They are also a source of vitamin E as they provide the equivalent of 15.25% of DRVs, i.e. 1.83 mg per 100 g.
  • Cooked parsnips provide the equivalent of:
    • 9.90% of DRVs for vitamin C, i.e. 7.92 mg per 100 g;
    • 9.56% of DRVs for vitamin B3, i.e. 1.53 mg per 100 g;
    • 8.09% of DRVs for vitamin B1, i.e. 0.089 mg per 100 g.
  • The quantity of other vitamins represents less than 7% of DRVs.

*Calculation made: Beta Carotene / 6 + retinol

POLYPHENOLS

Nutrition and health claims

According to the definitions of nutrition claims as set out in Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims, and in view of the composition of raw parsnip, the following claims may be used:

NUTRITION CLAIMS OF RAW PARSNIP

  • Fat-free (100 g of raw parsnips contain less than 0.5 g of fat)
  • Low in sugar (100 g of raw parsnips contain no more than 5 g of sugars)
  • High in vitamin B9 (100 g of raw parsnips provide more than 30% of DRVs)
  • High in vitamin K1 (100 g of raw parsnips provide more than 30% of DRVs)
  • Source of fibre (100 g of raw parsnips provide more than 3 g of fibre)
  • Source of potassium (100 g of raw parsnips provide more than 15% of DRVs)
  • Source of manganese (100 g of raw parsnips provide more than 15% of DRVs)
  • Source of vitamin E (100 g of raw parsnips provide more than 15% of DRVs)

HEALTH CLAIMS (for a consumption of 100 g of raw parsnip)

Folates or vitamin B9

Folates contribute to:

  • maternal tissue growth during pregnancy,
  • normal amino acid synthesis,
  • normal blood formation,
  • normal homocysteine metabolism,
  • normal psychological function,
  • normal function of the immune system,
  • reduction of tiredness and fatigue.
  • Folates have a role in the process of cell division.
Vitamin K1
  • Vitamin K1 contributes to:
    • maintenance of normal bones,
    • normal blood clotting.
Potassium
  • Potassium contributes to:
    • normal functioning of the nervous system,
    • normal muscle function,
    • maintenance of normal blood pressure.
Manganese
  • Manganese contributes to:
    • normal energy-yielding metabolism,
    • maintenance of normal bones,
    • normal formation of connective tissues,
    • protection of cells from oxidative stress.
Vitamin E
  • Vitamin E contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress.

Nutrition and health claims

According to the definitions of nutrition claims as set out in Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims, and in view of the composition of stewed parsnip, the following claims may be used:

NUTRITION CLAIMS OF STEWED PARSNIP

  • High in vitamin B9 (100 g of stewed parsnips provide more than 30% of DRVs)
  • Fat-free (100 g of stewed parsnips contain no more than 0.5 g of fat)
  • Source of fibre (100 g of stewed parsnips provide more than 3 g of fibre)
  • Source of potassium (100 g of stewed parsnips provide more than 15% of DRVs)
  • Source of vitamin E (100 g of stewed parsnips provide more than 15% of DRVs)

HEALTH CLAIMS (for a consumption of 100 g of stewed parsnips)

Folates or vitamin B9

Folates contribute to:

  • maternal tissue growth during pregnancy,
  • normal amino acid synthesis,
  • normal blood formation,
  • normal homocysteine metabolism,
  • normal psychological function,
  • normal function of the immune system,
  • reduction of tiredness and fatigue.
  • Folates have a role in the process of cell division.
Potassium
  • Potassium contributes to:
    • normal functioning of the nervous system,
    • normal muscle function,
    • maintenance of normal blood pressure.
Vitamin E
  • Vitamin E contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress.
  • National Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health Safety. Ciqual 2020 nutritional composition table. Accessed on 05/10/2020 from the Ciqual website https://ciqual.anses.fr/
  • Neveu V, Perez-Jiménez J, Vos F, Crespy V, du Chaffaut L, Mennen L, Knox C, Eisner R, Cruz J, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2010) Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database, doi: 10.1093/database/bap024. Full text (free access)
  • Péron, J-Y (2006). 2nd edition vegetable productions. Paris: Lavoisier
  • Philipps R & Rix M. (1994). Vegetables. Paris: The Rustic House
  • Regulation (EC) N ° 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 concerning nutritional and health claims made on foodstuffs.
  • Commission Regulation (EU) N ° 432/2012 of 16 May 2012 establishing a list of authorized health claims relating to foodstuffs, other than those referring to the reduction of the risk of disease as well as to the development and child health.
  • Regulation (EU) n ° 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on information to consumers on foodstuffs, amending Regulations (EC) n ° 1924/2006 and (EC) n ° 1925/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Commission Directive 87/250 / EEC, Council Directive 90/496 / EEC, Commission Directive 1999/10 / EC, Directive 200/13 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Directives 2002/67 / EC and 2008/5 / EC and Commission Regulation (EC) No 608/2004.
  • Rubatzky, V.E. & Yamaguchi, M., 1997. World vegetables: principles, production and nutritive values. 2nd Edition. Chapman & Hall, New York, United States. 843 pp.
Composition and analysis