Asperge blanche

To print
Caloric intake
-
Produit cuit (à l'eau/bouilli)
seasonality of the product
spring
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D

Description

  • Asparagus belongs to the Liliaceae family, Asparagus genus, of the officinalis species.
  • In France, it is mainly cultivated in the Val-de-Loire, the South-West, the South-East and in the Alsace region.
  • The asparagus known as “Argenteuil”, grown in the Île-de-France region, and the “sand asparagus” from the Landes region are the two best known varieties (French Ministry of Agriculture, 2020)

PHYSICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS

  • Asparagus is a underground or flowering bud, also called a shoot. In order to remain white, asparagus must not be exposed to light.
  • White asparagus is more fibrous than green asparagus because it grows less quickly (Chamber of Agriculture of the Bouches-du-Rhône, 2015).
  • The consumption of asparagus is traditionally accompanied by a specific odour in the urine, more or less marked depending on the individual and disappearing a few hours after consumption (Facius, 2019). This smell is due to the presence of an amino acid: asparagusic acid (Mitchell, 2014) which is transformed during digestion into methyl-mercaptan.
  • The molecules responsible for the bitterness of white asparagus are monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b for asparagus eaten raw and bidesmosides for cooked asparagus (Dawid, 2014).

COMPOSITION CHARACTERISTICS (excluding macronutrients, vitamins and minerals)

  • Asparagus has good levels of polyphenols, particularly those of the flavonoid family (Fan, 2015;  Symes, 2018Zhang, 2019). The active components differ according to the parts of the plant. The leaves are richest in flavonoids and saponins (Guo, 2019).
  • In addition, the fibres contained in asparagus (fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin) are considered to be soluble fibres. They have a prebiotic effect and are metabolised by the bacteria of the gut microbiota into short-chain fatty acids, the main source of energy for the epithelial cells of the gut (Sabater-Molina, 2009)

Finally, the skin of white asparagus contains polysaccharides of the pectic type that could potentially be used as immune response modulators (Wang, 2020).

RAW

The following values are approximate and depend on variety, season, ripeness, cultivation conditions, etc. 

Raw white asparagus is low in energy* because it provides an average of 25.90 calories (kcal) per 100 g or 109 kJ. A cooked asparagus weighs on average 3.40 to 13.60 g depending on the size, which corresponds to an energy intake of 0.88 to 3.52 kcal.

COMPOSITION TABLES

For each nutrient, the tables provide information on the content, minimum and maximum values, as well as the percentage of the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) per 100 g net of white or purple asparagus, peeled, raw (except for the table of polyphenols, which concerns raw asparagus, the variety of which is not mentioned).

*Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods.

MACRONUTRIENTS

Constituant (g) Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Water - - -
Fibers - - -
Carbohydrates - - -
Lipids - - -
Protein - - -
Constituant (g) Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Water - - -
Fibers - - -
Carbohydrates - - -
Lipids - - -
Protein - - -

Zoom on carbohydrates
  • Raw white asparagus has a lower carbohydrate content (2.50 g per 100 g) than the average content of raw vegetables (4.45 g per 100 g).
Zoom on fibres
  • The fibre content of raw white asparagus (1.80 g per 100 g) is lower than the average content found in raw vegetables (2.43 g per 100 g).
Zoom on protein
  • The protein content of raw white asparagus (2.50 g per 100 g) is higher than the average content in raw vegetables (1.87 g per 100 g).
Zoom on lipids
  • Raw white asparagus has a lower fat content (0.30 g per 100 g) than the average content in raw vegetables (0.56 g per 100 g).
  • It is fat-free* as it contains less than 0.5 g fat per 100 g.

*Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. 

MINERALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS

Constituant Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Calcium (mg) - - -
Copper (mg) - - -
Iron (mg) - - -
Iode (µg) - - -
Magnésium (mg) - - -
Manganese (mg) - - -
Phosphorus (mg) - - -
Potassium (mg) - - -
Sodium (mg) - - -
Zinc (mg) - - -
Constituant Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Calcium (mg) - - -
Copper (mg) - - -
Iron (mg) - - -
Iode (µg) - - -
Magnésium (mg) - - -
Manganese (mg) - - -
Phosphorus (mg) - - -
Potassium (mg) - - -
Sodium (mg) - - -
Zinc (mg) - - -

Zoom on minerals and trace elements
  • The mineral most present in raw white asparagus is potassium with a content representing 8.45% of DRVs for potassium, i.e. 169 mg per 100 g.
  • The other minerals and trace elements are present in quantities representing less than 7% of DRVs.

MICRONUTRIENTS

Constituant Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) - - -
Vitamin B1 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B2 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B3 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B5 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B6 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B9 (µg) - - -
Vitamin C (mg) - - -
Vitamin E (mg) - - -
Constituant Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) - - -
Vitamin B1 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B2 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B3 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B5 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B6 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B9 (µg) - - -
Vitamin C (mg) - - -
Vitamin E (mg) - - -

Zoom on vitamins
  • Raw white asparagus is high in vitamin B9, as it provides the equivalent of 75% of DRVs for vitamin B9, i.e. 150 µg per 100 g. In fact, according to the Ciqual 2020 table, along with raw green asparagus, it is one of the vegetables that contains the most vitamin B9, after raw spinach and broccoli.
  • Raw white asparagus is also a source of vitamin C, as it provides the equivalent of 22.50% of DRVs for vitamin C, i.e. 18 mg per 100 g.

The other vitamins are present in raw white asparagus in quantities representing less than 6% of DRVs.

BOILED

The following values are approximate and depend on variety, season, ripeness, cultivation conditions, etc. Cooked white asparagus is low in energy* because it brings on average 18.60 calories (kcal) for 100 g, i.e. 738.10 kJ. A cooked asparagus weighs on average 3.40 to 13.60 g depending on the size, which corresponds to an energy intake of 0.63 to 2.53 kcal.

COMPOSITION TABLES

For each nutrient, the tables provide information on the content, minimum and maximum values, as well as the percentage of the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) per 100 g net of white asparagus boiled/cooked in water.

* Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods.

MACRONUTRIENTS

Zoom on carbohydrates
  • Boiled white asparagus has a lower carbohydrate content (1.63 g per 100 g) than the average content in cooked vegetables (4.85 g per 100 g).
  • Its carbohydrates are mainly fructose (0.80 g per 100 g) and glucose (0.40 g per 100 g).
  • It is low in sugar* as it contains less than 5 g per 100 g, i.e. 1.20 g per 100 g.

 

Zoom on fibres
  • Its fibre content (1.30 g per 100 g) is lower than the average content in cooked vegetables (2.89 g per 100 g).
Zoom on protein
  • The protein content of boiled white asparagus (1.44 g per 100 g) is lower than the average content found in cooked vegetables (2 g per 100 g).
Zoom on lipids
  • Boiled white asparagus has a lower fat content (0.30 g per 100 g) than the average content in cooked vegetables (0.53 g per 100 g).
  • It is fat-free* as it contains less than 0.5 g fat per 100 g.

* Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. 

MINERALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS

Zoom on minerals and trace elements
  • The mineral most present in boiled white asparagus is copper with a content representing 9 % of DRVs for copper, i.e. 0.09 mg per 100 g.
  • The other minerals and trace elements are present in quantities representing less than 7% of DRVs.

MICRONUTRIENTS

Zoom on vitamins
  • Boiled white asparagus is high in vitamin B9, as 100 g of white asparagus provide the equivalent of 33.40% of DRVs for vitamin B9, i.e. 66.80 µg per 100 g.
  • The other vitamins are present in quantities representing less than 7% of DRVs.

*Calculation performed: Beta Carotene / 6 + retinol

Nutrition and health claims

According to the definitions of nutrition claims as set out in Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims, and in view of the composition of raw white or purple asparagus, the following claims may be used:

NUTRITION CLAIMS OF WHITE OR PURPLE RAW ASPARAGUS

  • Low in energy (100 g of raw white or purple asparagus provide less than 40 kcal)
  • Fat-free (100 g of raw white or purple asparagus contain no more than 0.5 g of fat)
  • High in vitamin B9 (100 g of raw white or purple asparagus provide more than 30% of DRVs)
  • Source of vitamin C (100 g of raw white or purple asparagus provide more than 15% of DRVs)

HEALTH CLAIMS (for a consumption of 100 g of white or purple raw asparagus)

Folates or vitamin B9

Folates contribute to:

  • maternal tissue growth during pregnancy,
  • normal amino acid synthesis,
  • normal blood formation,
  • normal homocysteine metabolism,
  • normal psychological function,
  • normal function of the immune system,
  • reduction of tiredness and fatigue,
  • Folates have a role in the process of cell division.
Vitamin C
  • Vitamin C contributes to:
    • normal function of the immune system during and after intense physical exercise,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of blood vessels,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of bones,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of cartilage,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of gums,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of skin,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of teeth,
    • normal energy-yielding metabolism,
    • normal functioning of the nervous system,
    • normal psychological function,
    • normal function of the immune system,
    • protection of cells from oxidative stress,
    • reduction of tiredness and fatigue,
    • regeneration of the reduced form of vitamin E.
  • Vitamin C increases iron absorption.

Nutrition and health claims

According to the definitions of nutrition claims as set out in Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims, and in view of the composition of boiled white asparagus, the following claims may be used:

NUTRITIONAL CLAIMS OF BOILED WHITE ASPARAGUS

  • Low in energy (100 g of boiled white asparagus provide less than 40 kcal)
  • Low in sugar (100 g of boiled white asparagus contain no more than 5 g of sugars)
  • Fat-free (100 g of boiled white asparagus contain no more than 0.5 g of fat)
  • High in vitamin B9 (100 g of boiled white asparagus provide more than 30% of DRVs)

HEALTH CLAIMS (for a consumption of 100 g of boiled white asparagus)

Folates or vitamin B9

Folates contribute to:

  • maternal tissue growth during pregnancy,
  • normal amino acid synthesis,
  • normal blood formation,
  • normal homocysteine metabolism,
  • normal psychological function,
  • normal function of the immune system,
  • reduction of tiredness and fatigue,
  • Folates have a role in the process of cell division.
  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual 2020. Consultée le 29/07/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual https://ciqual.anses.fr/
  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual pour le calcul des apports nutritionnels CALNUT 2020. Consultée le 14/09/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual https://ciqual.anses.fr/
  • Chambre d’agriculture des Bouches-du-Rhône. Culture de l’asperge blanche ou verte. Avril 2015. 20p
  • Dawid C, Hofmann T. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Food Chem. 2014; 145:427-36.
  • Facius A, Atkinson LA, Hanna K, Coombes MC, Lahu G, Wagner JA. What Can Be Learned From Crowdsourced Population Asparagus Urinary Odor Kinetics? CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol. 2019 ; 8(6):407-414.
  • Fan R, Yuan F, Wang N, Gao Y, Huang Y. Extraction and analysis of antioxidant compounds from the residues of Asparagus officinalis L. J Food Sci Technol. 2015; 52(5):2690-700.
  • Guo Q, Wang N, Liu H, Li Z, Lu L, Wang C. The bioactive compounds and biological functions of Asparagus officinalis L. – A review. Journal of Functional Foods. 2019. In Press.
  • Ministère de l’agriculture. Les asperges, un légume tendre du printemps [en ligne]. [Consulté le 13/02/2020] disponible à l’adresse https://agriculture.gouv.fr/les-asperges-un-legume-tendre-du-printemps
  • Mitchell SC, Waring RH. Asparagusic acid. Phytochemistry. 2014; 97:5-10.
  • Neveu V, Perez-Jiménez J, Vos F, Crespy V, du Chaffaut L, Mennen L, Knox C, Eisner R, Cruz J, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2010) Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database, doi: 10.1093/database/bap024. Full text (free access)
  • Règlement (CE) N° 1924/2006 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 20 décembre 2006 concernant les allégations nutritionnelles et de santé portant sur les denrées alimentaires.
  • Règlement (UE) N°432/2012 de la Commission du 16 mai 2012 établissant une liste des allégations de santé autorisées portant sur les denrées alimentaires, autres que celles faisant référence à la réduction du risque de maladie ainsi qu’au développement et à la santé infantiles.
  • Règlement (UE) n°1169/2011 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 25 octobre 2011 concernant l’information des consommateurs sur les denrées alimentaires, modifiant les règlements (CE) n°1924/2006 et (CE) n°1925/2006 du Parlement européen et de Conseil et abrogeant la directive 87/250/CEE de la Commission, la directive 90/496/CEE du Conseil, la directive 1999/10/CE de la Commission, la directive 200/13/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil, les directives 2002/67/CE et 2008/5/CE de la Commission et le règlement (CE) n°608/2004 de la Commission.
  • Sabater-Molina M, Larqué E, Torrella F, Zamora S. Dietary fructooligosaccharides and potential benefits on health. J Physiol Biochem. 2009; 65(3):315-28.
  • Symes A, Shavandi A, Zhang H, Mohamed Ahmed IA, Al-Juhaimi FY, Bekhit AEA. Antioxidant Activities and Caffeic Acid Content in New Zealand Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) Roots Extracts. Antioxidants (Basel). 2018; 7(4).
  • Wang N, Zhang X, Wang S, Guo Q, Li Z, Liu H, Wang C. Structural characterisation and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from white asparagus skin. Carbohydr Polym. 2020; 227:115314.
  • Zhang H, Birch J, Pei J, Mohamed Ahmed IA, Yang H, Dias G, Abd El-Aty AM, Bekhit AE. Identification of Six Phytochemical Compounds from Asparagus officinalis L. Root Cultivars from New Zealand and China Using UAE-SPE-UPLC-MS/MS: Effects of Extracts on H₂O₂-Induced Oxidative Stress. Nutrients. 2019; 11(1).
Composition and analysis