Vine tomato

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Apport calorique icone
Caloric intake
20,10 kcal per 100g
Photo du composant Water
94,60 g Water
Photo du composant Fibers
1,50 g Fibers
Photo du composant Carbohydrates
3,03 g Carbohydrates
Photo du composant Potassium
200 mg Potassium
Photo du composant Vitamin C
18,20 mg Vitamin C
Raw product
seasonality of the product
spring, summer
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Description

  • The vine tomato belongs to the Solanaceae family, genus Solanum, species Solanum lycopersicum.
  • The ancestral form of the tomato originated in South America, in the Peru-Ecuador region, and then spread northwards as a weed until it reached Mexico where it was domesticated (Jenkins, 1948). It was discovered in the 15th century by Christopher Columbus and arrived in France a century later (Interfel, 2020).
  • Contrary to popular belief, the tomato is a fruit, even though it is eaten as a vegetable. It is available all year round, but the peak season is from May to September (Interfel, 2020).

PHYSICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS

  • The vine tomato is medium-sized, very pulpy and very fragrant. Its firm flesh allows it to be eaten in soup, salad or in a cooked dish (Tomates et concombres de nos régions, 2020).
  • During its development, the pigments responsible for its colour are mainly chlorophylls a and b. When ripe, chlorophyll levels decrease sharply while the relative proportion of violaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, lycopene, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin is up to 9 times higher (Carrari, 2006a).
  • The main contributors to the flavour of ripe tomato are volatile compounds of the alcohol and terpene family including: cis-3-hexanal, cis-3-hexanol, hexanal, 3-methylbutanal, sulcatone, 1-pentan-3-one, trans-2-hexanal, methyl salicylate, 2-isobutylthiazole and β-ionone (Carrari, 2006b).
  • However, their abundance can vary by several orders of magnitude depending on the age of the tomato variety (Tieman, 2017). In fact it was highlighted, in the more modern varieties, that the concentrations in β-ionone were lower, in the order of ng/g of fresh fruit (Tieman, 2017). In addition, the concentrations of hexanal were found to be higher in older varieties, in the order of μg/g of fresh fruit (Tieman, 2017).
  • But it is important to point out that the environmental conditions as well as the degree of ripeness have determining roles in affirming or not the organoleptic qualities of the fruit (Tiwari, 2013).

COMPOSITION CHARACTERISTICS (excluding macronutrients, vitamins and minerals)

  • Many researchers have been interested in the beneficial effects of tomatoes in cancer thanks to some of its bioactive compounds. These bioactive constituents include phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols, including lycopene (Lenucci, 2006).
  • A 6-year follow-up cohort study showed that tomato consumption was associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer due to a significant presence of lycopene between 7.8 and 18.1 mg per 100 g (Willett, 1995) A meta-analysis confirmed that higher consumption of carotenoids, including β-carotene, α-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin, reduced the risk of esophageal cancer (Ge, 2013).
  • Of 72 studies identified, 57 reported inverse associations between tomato consumption or blood lycopene levels and cancer risk, of which 35 of these inverse associations were statistically significant (Giovannucci, 1999). A beneficial effect was particularly observed for lung, stomach, pancreatic, colon, rectal, breast and cervical cancer (Giovannucci, 1999).

RAW

The following values are approximate and depend on variety, season, ripeness, cultivation conditions, etc. Raw vine tomatoes are low in energy*. On average, they provide 20.10 calories (kcal) per 100 g, i.e. 84.30 kJ.

COMPOSITION TABLES 

For each nutrient, the tables provide information on the content, minimum and maximum values, as well as the percentage of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) per 100 g net of raw vine tomatoes (except for the polyphenols table, which is for raw tomato – unknown variety).

* Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods.

MACRONUTRIENTS

Constituent (g) Average content Min-Max
per 100g
NRV%
Water 94,6 - -
Fibers 1,50 - -
Carbohydrates 3,03 0 - NC 1,17
of which Sugar 2,60 - 2,89
Lipids < 0,50 - -
of which Saturated fatty acids < 0,01 - -
Protein 0,50 - 1
Constituent (g) Amount Min-Max NRV%
Water Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - -
Fibers Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - -
Carbohydrates Ciqual 2020 - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
dont Sugar Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Lipids Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
dont Saturated fatty acids Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Protein Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011

Zoom on carbohydrates
  • Raw vine tomatoes contain a lower amount of carbohydrates (3.03 g per 100 g) than the average for raw vegetables: about 4.45 g per 100 g.
  • These are mainly fructose (1.40 g per 100 g) and glucose (1.20 g per 100 g).
  • Their sugar content is less than 5 g per 100 g, (2.60 g of sugars per 100 g), meaning the vine tomato is low in sugar*.
Zoom on fibres
  • They provide 1.50 g of fibre per 100 g.
  • This amount is well below the average quantity found in raw vegetables (2.43 g per 100 g).
Zoom on protein
  • Their protein content (0.50 g per 100 g) is also lower than the average amount found in raw vegetables (1.87 g per 100 g).
Zoom on lipids
  • Their fat content is less than 0.5 g per 100 g, meaning the vine tomato is fat-free*.

* Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. 

MINERALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS

Constituent Average content Min-Max
per 100g
NRV%
Calcium (mg) 6,60 - 0,83
Chloride (mg) 31,93 - 3,99
Copper (mg) 0,02 - 2
Iron (mg) 0,18 - 1,29
Iodine (µg) < 20 - -
Magnesium (mg) 6,50 - 1,73
Manganese (mg) 0,12 - 6
Phosphorus (mg) 20 - 2,86
Potassium (mg) 200 - 10
Selenium (µg) < 20 - -
Sodium (mg) < 5 - -
Zinc (mg) 0,08 - 0,80
Constituent Amount Min-Max NRV%
Calcium (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Chloride (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Copper (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Iron (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Iodine (µg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Magnesium (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Manganese (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Phosphorus (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Potassium (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Selenium (µg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Sodium (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - -
Zinc (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011

Zoom on minerals and trace elements
  • Raw vine tomatoes provide a significant amount of potassium. In fact, they provide the equivalent of 10% of DRVs, i.e. 200 mg per 100 g.
  • They also provide the equivalent of 6% of DRVs for manganese, i.e. 0.12 mg per 100 g.
  • The quantity of other minerals and trace elements represents less than 4% of DRVs.

VITAMINS

Constituent Average content Min-Max
per 100g
NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) 966 - -
Vitamin A equivalent (µg) 161 - 20,13
Vitamin B1 (mg) 0,036 - 3,27
Vitamin B2 (mg) < 0,01 - -
Vitamin B3 (mg) 0,47 - 2,94
Vitamin B5 (mg) 0,06 - 1
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0,07 - 5
Vitamin B9 (µg) 15 - 7,50
Vitamin C (mg) 18,20 - 22,75
Vitamin E (mg) 0,45 - 3,75
Vitamin K1 (µg) 0,97 - 1,29
Constituent Amount Min-Max NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - -
Vitamin A equivalent (µg) Calcul à partir de la valeur Provitamine A Béta-carotène* - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B1 (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B2 (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B3 (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B5 (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B6 (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin B9 (µg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin C (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin E (mg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Vitamin K1 (µg) Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen, et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011

Zoom on vitamins
  • Raw vine tomatoes are a source of:
    • vitamin C because they provide the equivalent of 22.75% of DRVs, i.e. 18.20 mg per 100 g;
    • vitamin A because they provide the equivalent of 20.13% of DRVs, i.e. 161 µg per 100 g.
  • They provide the equivalent of 7.50% of DRVs for vitamin B9, i.e. 15 µg per 100 g.
  • The amount of other vitamins is less than 5% of DRVs.

*Calculation made: Beta Carotene / 6 + retinol 

POLYPHENOLS

Constituent (mg) Average content Min-Max
per 100mg
Flavonoids (mg) 0,95 -
of which Flavonols (mg) 0,74 -
of which Flavanones (mg) 0,12 -
of which Dihydrochalcones (mg) 0,097 -
Phenolic Acids (mg) 2,32 -
of which Hydroxycinnamic acids (mg) 2,32 -
Total polyphenols 3,27 -
Constituent (mg) Amount Min-Max
Flavonoids Etude CTIFL-Aprifel 2017-2018 Méthode utilisée : chromatographie -
dont Flavonols Etude CTIFL-Aprifel 2017-2018 Méthode utilisée : chromatographie -
dont Flavanones Etude CTIFL-Aprifel 2017-2018 Méthode utilisée : chromatographie -
dont Dihydrochalcones Etude CTIFL-Aprifel 2017-2018 Méthode utilisée : chromatographie -
Phenolic Acids Etude CTIFL-Aprifel 2017-2018 Méthode utilisée : chromatographie -
dont Hydroxycinnamic acids Etude CTIFL-Aprifel 2017-2018 Méthode utilisée : chromatographie -
Total polyphenols Etude CTIFL-Aprifel 2017-2018 Méthode utilisée : chromatographie -

Zoom on polyphenols (for raw tomato – unknown variety)
  • Polyphenols are substances with an antioxidant effect.
  • Hydroxycinnamic acids, a subgroup of phenolic acids, are the polyphenols most present in raw tomato, representing 71.02% of the total polyphenols identified.
  • Next come flavonols, a subgroup of flavonoids, which account for 22.49% of total polyphenols.

Nutrition and health claims

According to the definitions of nutrition claims as presented in Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims, and in view of the composition of the raw vine tomato, the following claims may be used:

NUTRITION CLAIMS OF RAW VINE TOMATOES

  • Low in energy (100 g of raw vine tomatoes provide less than 40 kcal)
  • Low in sugar (100 g of raw vine tomatoes contain less than 5 g of sugars)
  • Fat-free (100 g of raw vine tomatoes contain less than 0.5 g of fat)
  • Source of vitamin C (100 g of raw vine tomatoes provide more than 15% of DRVs)
  • Source of vitamin A (100 g of raw vine tomatoes provide more than 15% of DRVs)

HEALTH CLAIMS (for a consumption of 100 g of raw vine tomatoes)

Vitamin C
  • Vitamin C contributes to:
    • normal function of the immune system during and after intense physical exercise,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of blood vessels,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of bones,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of cartilage,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of gums,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of skin,
    • normal collagen formation for the normal function of teeth,
    • normal energy-yielding metabolism,
    • normal functioning of the nervous system,
    • normal psychological function,
    • normal function of the immune system,
    • protection of cells from oxidative stress,
    • reduction of tiredness and fatigue,
    • regeneration of the reduced form of vitamin E.
  • Vitamin C increases iron absorption.
Vitamin A
  • Vitamin A has a role in the process of cell specialisation.
  • Vitamin A contributes to:
    • maintenance of normal skin,
    • maintenance of normal mucous membranes,
    • maintenance of normal vision,
    • normal iron metabolism,
    • normal function of the immune system.
  • Afssa, 2002. Les fibres alimentaires : définitions, méthodes de dosage, allégations nutritionnelles.
  • CTILF, INTERFEL. Guide des fruits et légumes en restauration hors domicile. Mars 2011.
  • Neveu V, Perez-Jiménez J, Vos F, Crespy V, du Chaffaut L, Mennen L, Knox C, Eisner R, Cruz J, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2010) Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database, doi: 10.1093/database/bap024. Full text (free access)
  • Perveen R, Suleria HA, Anjum FM, Butt MS, Pasha I, Ahmad S. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) carotenoids & lycopenes chemistry; Metabolism, absorption, nutrition and allied health claims- A comprehensive review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013 Aug 24.
  • Raffo A, Nicoli S, Nardo N, Baiamonte I, D’Aloise A, Paoletti F. Impact of different distribution scenarios and recommended storage conditions on flavor related quality attributes in ripening fresh tomatoes. J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Oct 24;60(42):10445-55.
  • Règlement (CE) N° 1924/2006 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 20 décembre 2006 concernant les allégations nutritionnelles et de santé portant sur les denrées alimentaires.
  • Règlement (UE) n°1169/2011 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 25 octobre 2011 concernant l’information des consommateurs sur les denrées alimentaires, modifiant les règlements (CE) n°1924/2006 et (CE) n°1925/2006 du Parlement européen et de Conseil et abrogeant la directive 87/250/CEE de la Commission, la directive 90/496/CEE du Conseil, la directive 1999/10/CE de la Commission, la directive 200/13/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil, les directives 2002/67/CE et 2008/5/CE de la Commission et le règlement (CE) n°608/2004 de la Commission.
  • Règlement (UE) N°432/2012 de la Commission du 16 mai 2012 établissant une liste des allégations de santé autorisées portant sur les denrées alimentaires, autres que celles faisant référence à la réduction du risque de maladie ainsi qu’au développement et à la santé infantiles.
  • Rothwell JA, Urpi-Sarda M, Boto-Ordoñez M, Knox C, Llorach R, Eisner R, Cruz J, Neveu V, Wishart D, Manach C, Andres-Lacueva C, Scalbert A. (2012) Phenol-Explorer 2.0: a major update of the Phenol-Explorer database integrating data on polyphenol metabolism and pharmacokinetics in humans and experimental animals. Database, doi: 10.1093/database/bas031. Full text (free access)
  • Rothwell JA, Pérez-Jiménez J, Neveu V, Medina-Ramon A, M’Hiri N, Garcia Lobato P, Manach C, Knox K, Eisner R, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2013) Phenol-Explorer 3.0: a major update of the Phenol-Explorer database to incorporate data on the effects of food processing on polyphenol content. Database, 10.1093/database/bat070. Full text (free access)
  • Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments – CIQUAL 2017 – via le site internet www.anses.fr, consultée le 02/01/2017.
  • Vogel JT, Tieman DM, Sims CA, Odabasi AZ, Clark DG, Klee HJ. Carotenoid content impacts flavor acceptability in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). J Sci Food Agric. 2010 Oct;90(13):2233-40.
  • Zhang Z, Liu L, Zhang M, Zhang Y, Wang Q. Effect of carbon dioxide enrichment on health-promoting compounds and organoleptic properties of tomato fruits grown in greenhouse. Food Chem. 2014 Jun 15;153:157-63.
Composition and analysis

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