Artichaut

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Caloric intake
-
mg Potassium
Produit cuit (à la vapeur)
seasonality of the product
spring, summer
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Description

  • The artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) belongs to the Asteraseae family
  • It is a vegetable mostly produced in the Mediterranean region (FAO, 2018).

PHYSICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS

  • The bitter taste of artichoke leaves and flowers is attributed to sesquiterpene lactones, such as cynaropicrin and cynarin (Hegazy, 2016).
  • Among the pigments responsible for the colour of the artichoke are anthocyanin derivatives such as cyanidin, peonidin and delphinidin (García-Martínez, 2017).
  • The green leaves of the Jerusalem artichoke, split or not, are potential sources of chlorophyll, the pigment responsible for the green colour of the plants (Kaszás, 2018)
  • Sixty-four volatile compounds have been identified in artichoke bracts. The volatile profile showed that sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and non-terpene derivatives are the main volatile compounds emitted by the bracts of the “Hyères purple” and “Oran white” cultivars (Dabbou, 2016).

COMPOSITION CHARACTERISTICS (excluding macronutrients, vitamins and minerals)

  • Artichokes have a large number and diversity of phenolic compounds such as monophenols (caffeic and coumaric acids) and polyphenols (5-O-caffeoylquinic, 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic and 1,3-di-O-caffeoylquinic acids) (García-Martínez, 2017). These phenolic compounds are known to have significant antioxidant activity (Blanco, 2018).
  • The phenolic content varies significantly depending on the position of the bracts on the artichoke head and the heat treatments (Ruiz-Cano, 2014).
  • Artichokes are a significant source of flavonoids, compounds belonging to the family of polyphenols. Flavonoids help protect against cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, degenerative disorders, platelet aggregation and osteoporosis. The transcription factor CcMYB12 regulates the biosynthesis of these flavonoids, specifically in the immature inflorescence and young leaves of artichokes (Blanco, 2018).
  • Artichokes are also a natural source of fibre and inulin, a polysaccharide naturally produced by many plants (Rizzo, 2019). Tunisian researchers looked at their high total dietary fibre composition and low fat content. The fibres showed a good water and oil retention capacity (8.17 g/g and 16.17 g/g respectively) (Boubaker, 2016).
  • The trace element and mineral profile of artichokes is significantly influenced by genotype, head fraction, location and season (Pandino, 2011).
  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual 2020. Consultée le 29/07/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual https://ciqual.anses.fr/
  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual pour le calcul des apports nutritionnels CALNUT 2020. Consultée le 14/09/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual https://ciqual.anses.fr/
  • Blanco E, Sabetta W, Danzi D, Negro D, Passeri V, Lisi AD, et al. Isolation and Characterization of the Flavonol Regulator CcMYB12 From the Globe Artichoke [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori]. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2018;9:941.
  • Boubaker M, Omri AE, Blecker C, Bouzouita N. Fibre concentrate from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) stem by-products: Characterization and application as a bakery product ingredient. Food Science and Technology International. 2016;22(8):759–68.
  • Dabbou S, Dabbou S, Flamini G, Pandino G, Gasco L, Helal AN. Phytochemical Compounds from the Crop Byproducts of Tunisian Globe Artichoke Cultivars. Chemistry & Biodiversity. 2016;13(11):1475–83.
  • FAOSTAT. FAO Statistics Agriculture Database. World Wide Web. 2018 [en ligne]. [Consulté le 12 mars 2020] Disponible à l’adresse : http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC.
  • García-Martínez N, Andreo-Martínez P, Almela L. Characterization of Six Artichoke Cultivars and Their Suitability for Agro-industrial Processing. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017;5:234–42.
  • Hegazy M-EF, Ibrahim AY, Mohamed TA, Shahat AA, El Halawany AM, Abdel-Azim NS, et al. Sesquiterpene Lactones from Cynara cornigera: Acetyl Cholinesterase Inhibition and In Silico Ligand Docking. Planta Medica. 2016;82(1-2):138–46.
  • Kaszás L, Kovács Z, Nagy E, Elhawat N, Abdalla N, Domokos-Szabolcsy E. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) as a Potential Chlorophyll Source for Humans and Animals Nutrition. Environment, Biodiversity and Soil Security. 2018;2:1–9.
  • Neveu V, Perez-Jiménez J, Vos F, Crespy V, du Chaffaut L, Mennen L, Knox C, Eisner R, Cruz J, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2010) Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database, doi: 10.1093/database/bap024. Full text (free access)
  • Pandino G, Lombardo S, Mauromicale G. Mineral profile in globe artichoke as affected by genotype, head part and environment. J Sci Food Agric. 2011;91(2):302-8.
  • Règlement (CE) N° 1924/2006 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 20 décembre 2006 concernant les allégations nutritionnelles et de santé portant sur les denrées alimentaires.
  • Règlement (UE) N°432/2012 de la Commission du 16 mai 2012 établissant une liste des allégations de santé autorisées portant sur les denrées alimentaires, autres que celles faisant référence à la réduction du risque de maladie ainsi qu’au développement et à la santé infantiles.
  • Règlement (UE) n°1169/2011 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 25 octobre 2011 concernant l’information des consommateurs sur les denrées alimentaires, modifiant les règlements (CE) n°1924/2006 et (CE) n°1925/2006 du Parlement européen et de Conseil et abrogeant la directive 87/250/CEE de la Commission, la directive 90/496/CEE du Conseil, la directive 1999/10/CE de la Commission, la directive 200/13/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil, les directives 2002/67/CE et 2008/5/CE de la Commission et le règlement (CE) n°608/2004 de la Commission.
  • Rizzo V, Lombardo S, Pandino G, Barbagallo RN, Mazzaglia A, Restuccia C, et al. Shelf-life study of ready-to-cook slices of globe artichoke “Spinoso sardo”: effects of anti-browning solutions and edible coating enriched with Foeniculum vulgare essential oil. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2019;99(11):5219-28.
  • Ruiz-Cano D, Pérez-Llamas F, Frutos MJ, Arnao MB, Espinosa C, López-Jiménez JÁ, Castillo J, Zamora S. Chemical and functional properties of the different by-products of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) from industrial canning processing. Food Chem. 2014;160:134-40.
Composition and analysis