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Caloric intake
mg Manganese
mg Potassium
Raw product
seasonality of the product
spring, summer, autumn, winter


  • The banana tree (Musa acuminata L.) belongs to the Musaceae family.
  • It is a plant found in regions with a tropical or subtropical climate (Xu, 2014). The banana tree is thought to be native to the islands of Southeast Asia (Li, 2013).
  • The main banana varieties are Enano, Morado, Valery and Macho (Utrilla-Coello, 2014).


  • Covered with a yellow skin that becomes mottled when ripe, it has tender, sweet, very soft flesh (Association Interprofessionnelle de la Banane).
  • Factors such as an increase in polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme, pH, temperature and oxygen availability are likely to cause browning of bananas. Browning affects the appearance, sensory properties (taste, smell and texture) and nutritional value of the fruit (Bakare, 2016).
  • Bananas are high in starch, a complex sugar composed of 20% amylose and 80% amylopectin (Cordenunsi-Lysenko, 2019). During ripening, the starch is converted to simple sugars (fructose, glucose and sucrose) that give bananas their sweet taste (Bhuiyan, 2020). This conversion provides energy for the processes responsible for colour change, synthesis of volatile compounds and softening of the flesh (Cordenunsi-Lysenko, 2019).
  • The starch content varies among different banana varieties, which are very diverse (Bhuiyan, 2020).
  • Typical banana flavour compounds are produced during a short period of ripening. The predominant volatile components vary across different banana cultivars, giving them their unique flavour. For example, the volatile 3-methylbutyl butanoate is the predominant ester in the Cavendish cultivar (Zhu, 2018).
  • Generally, esters, such as isoamyl butanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate and isoamyl isovalerate give a fruity flavour to bananas (Zhu, 2018).
  • 246 volatile compounds have been identified in bananas, including 112 esters, 57 alcohols, 39 acids, 10 aldehydes and 10 ketones, but only 12 compounds are thought to contribute significantly to their flavour (Zhu, 2018).

COMPOSITION CHARACTERISTICS (excluding macronutrients, vitamins and minerals)

  • The polysaccharide, α-(1 → 6)-d-glucan, is highly present in bananas. It is believed to enhance the immune system by increasing the proliferation or stimulating the cells involved in this system, namely T cells and macrophages (Yang, 2019).
  • Banana peel and flesh contain various phenolic compounds, such as gallic acid (a hydroxybenzoic acid), catechin, epicatechin (flavanols), tannins and anthocyanins. In addition, the total phenol content increases as bananas ripen, averaging 7 mg/100 g of fresh weight.  These phenolic compounds have a protective role against free radicals responsible for ageing and various diseases (Singh, 2016).
  • Its high starch content gives it cholesterol-lowering properties as well as beneficial effects on digestion and the gut.
  • Bananas also contain serotonin which helps prevent or overcome depression and relaxes the body (Singh, 2016).
  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual 2020. Consultée le 27/07/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual
  • Bakare AH, Ogunbowale OD, Adegunwa MO, Olusanya JO. Effects of pretreatments of banana (Musa AAA,Omini) on the composition, rheological properties, and baking quality of its flour and composite blends with wheat flour. Food Science & Nutrition. 2016;5(2): 182–96.
  • Bhuiyan F, Campos NA, Swennen R, Carpentier S. Characterizing fruit ripening in plantain and Cavendish bananas: A proteomics approach. J Proteomics. 2020;214: 103632.
  • Cordenunsi-Lysenko BR, Nascimento JRO, Castro-Alves VC, Purgatto E, Fabi JP, Peroni-Okyta FHG. The Starch Is (Not) Just Another Brick in the Wall: The Primary Metabolism of Sugars During Banana Ripening.Frontiers in Plant Science. 2019;10: 391.
  • Li LF, Wang HY; Zhang C, Wang XF, Shi FX, Chen WN, Ge XJ. Origins and domestication of cultivated banana inferred from chloroplast and nuclear genes. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e80502.
  • Neveu V, Perez-Jiménez J, Vos F, Crespy V, du Chaffaut L, Mennen L, Knox C, Eisner R, Cruz J, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2010) Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database, doi: 10.1093/database/bap024. Full text (free access)
  • Règlement (CE) N° 1924/2006 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 20 décembre 2006 concernant les allégations nutritionnelles et de santé portant sur les denrées alimentaires.
  • Règlement (UE) N°432/2012 de la Commission du 16 mai 2012 établissant une liste des allégations de santé autorisées portant sur les denrées alimentaires, autres que celles faisant référence à la réduction du risque de maladie ainsi qu’au développement et à la santé infantiles.
  • Règlement (UE) n°1169/2011 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 25 octobre 2011 concernant l’information des consommateurs sur les denrées alimentaires, modifiant les règlements (CE) n°1924/2006 et (CE) n°1925/2006 du Parlement européen et de Conseil et abrogeant la directive 87/250/CEE de la Commission, la directive 90/496/CEE du Conseil, la directive 1999/10/CE de la Commission, la directive 200/13/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil, les directives 2002/67/CE et 2008/5/CE de la Commission et le règlement (CE) n°608/2004 de la Commission.
  • Singh B, Singh JP, Kaur A, Singh N. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits – A review. Food Chemistry. 2016;206: 1–11.
  • Utrilla-Coello RG, Rodriguez-Huezo ME, Carrillo-Navas H, Hernandez-Jaimes C, Vernon-Carter EJ, Alvarez-Ramirez J. In vitro digestibility, physcochemical, thermal and rheological properties of banana starches. Carbohydr Polym. 2014;101:154-62.
  • Xu Y, Hu W, Liu J, Zhang J, Jia C, Miao H, Xu B, Jin Z. A banana aquaporin gene, MaPIP1; 1, is involved in tolerance to drought and salt stresses. BMC Plant Biol. 2014;14(1):59.
  • Yang J, Tu J, Liu H, Wen L, Jiang Y, Yang B. Identification of an immunostimulatory polysaccharide in banana. Food Chemistry. 2019;277: 46–53.
  • Zhu X, Li Q, Li J, Luo J, Chen W, Li X. Comparative Study of Volatile Compounds in the Fruit of Two Banana Cultivars at Different Ripening Stages.Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2018;23(10) : E2456.
Composition and analysis