Pineapple

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Caloric intake
-
mg Manganese
Raw food
seasonality of the product
spring, autumn, winter
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Description

  • Pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) belongs to the family Bromeliaceae.
  • It is a plant native to Central and South America.
  • Costa Rica is the leading producer of pineapple for the fresh market (Cirad, 2016).
  • The main pineapple varieties are Cayenne smooth, Sweet (or Del Monte Gold®), Sugar Loaf, Queen, and MD2 or “Rompine.”

PHYSICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS

  • Pineapple is a non-climacteric fruit; once picked, it does not ripen (Redwan, 2016).
  • His orange-yellow color comes from a small number of carotenoids: 66.90 µg per 100 g of β-carotene, and changes with the degree of ripening of the fruit (Brat, 2004; Aprifel – Anses study 2017-2019).
  • Other carotenoids, such as violaxanthin, and various (9Z)-violaxanthin esters are thought to be responsible for the flesh color of pineapple (Steingass, 2020).
  • The taste and quality of pineapple depends mainly on factors such as sugars, organic acids (mainly citric and L-malic acids), amino acids, aroma compounds as well as firmness. However, the taste of pineapple is influenced mainly by the total sugar concentration and the nature of sugars, namely sucrose, fructose, and glucose (Zhang, 2012; Ivanova, 2019).
  • Sugar content, which varies throughout fruit development, can be affected by environmental factors such as temperature, rainfall, and fertilization (Dorey, 2016).
  • As with carbohydrates, the level of organic acids varies significantly with the ripeness of the fruit (Koia, 2012). These include citric acids.
  • Of the 280 volatile compounds identified in pineapple, only a few contribute to its flavor, including 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, and 1-(E,Z)-3,5-undecatriene (Tokitomo, 2005).

COMpositional characteristics (excluding macronutrients, vitamins and minerals)

  • Polyphenol composition :
    • Containing a significant amount of polyphenols and in particular gallic acid, pineapple is thought to possess a beneficial action against oxidative stress related to obesity, protecting red blood cells and pre-adipocytes, and consequently improving the antioxidant capacities of the body (September-Malaterre, 2016).
    • Pineapple contains myricetin, a compound in the flavonol family that has strong antioxidant activity. Daily consumption of this compound (120.5 ± 95.7 mg) is reportedly linked to a decrease in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (Yao, 2019).
    • A Chinese team quantified and compared the phenolic acid, β-carotene, and ascorbic acid (AA) contents of seventeen pineapple varieties and their antioxidant activities. The variety ‘MD-2’, also known as ‘Rompine’, had the highest AA and total polyphenol contents, but lower β-carotene content. It also had the greatest diversity of phenolic compounds and the highest antioxidant activities

RAW

Values are to be considered as orders of magnitude, likely to vary according to varieties, season, degree of ripeness, growing conditions, etc.
Pineapple provides on average 54.40 calories (kcal) per 100 g or 231 kJ.

TABLES OF COMPOSITION
For each nutrient, the tables provide information on the content, minimum and maximum values, and percentage of the Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) per 100 g net of pineapple.

MACRONUTRIENTS

Constituant (g) Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Water 85,50 82,50 - 91,60 -
Fibers 1,20 NC - 1,50 -
Carbohydrates 11,70 - -
Lipids < 0,50 - -
Protein < 0,50 - -
Constituant (g) Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Water Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) Ciqual 2020 -
Fibers Ciqual 2020 (valeur issue des analyses Ciqual-Aprifel 2017) Ciqual 2020 -
Carbohydrates - - Règlement (UE) N°1169/2011 du parlement Européen et du conseil du 25 octobre 2011
Lipids - - -
Protein - - -

Focus on carbohydrates
  • Pineapple’s energy comes to it primarily from its carbohydrates, to the tune of 11.70 g per 100 g.
  • His carbohydrate content is higher than the average amount found in fresh fruit (11.31 g per 100 g).
  • These are mainly sucrose (6.40 g per 100 g), fructose (2.30 g per 100 g) and glucose (1.80 g per 100 g). Their proportion and the rate of carbohydrates in the pineapple depend on its maturation.
Focus on fiber
  • Pineapple contains 1.20 g of fiber per 100 g on average, which is below the average for fresh fruit (2.77 g per 100 g).
Focus on fat
  • Pineapple does not contain fat* as it provides less than 0.5 g per 100 g.

* Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods.

MINERALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS

Focus on minerals and trace elements
  • Pineapple is rich in manganese as it provides the equivalent of 42% of the NRV for manganese, or 0.84 mg per 100 g.
  • The mineral most present in pineapple is potassium with a content equivalent to 7% of the NRVs in potassium, or 140 mg per 100 g.
  • The other minerals and trace elements are present in amounts representing less than 7% of NRVs.

MICRONUTRIENTS

Constituant Teneur moyenne Min-Max
pour 100 g
NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) - - -
Vitamin B1 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B2 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B3 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B5 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B6 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B9 (µg) - - -
Vitamin C (mg) - - -
Vitamin E (mg) - - -
Constituant Quantité Min-Max NRV%
Provitamin A Beta-carotene (µg) - - -
Vitamin B1 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B2 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B3 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B5 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B6 (mg) - - -
Vitamin B9 (µg) - - -
Vitamin C (mg) - - -
Vitamin E (mg) - - -

Focus on vitamins
  • Pineapple isrich in vitamin C as it provides the equivalent of 57.63% of the vitamin C NRV, or 46.10 mg per 100 g.
  • Vitamin B9 is the 2nd most notable vitamin in pineapple with a content of 19.60 µg per 100 g (or 9.80% of the NRV in vitamin B9).
  • The other vitamins are present in amounts representing less than 6% of NRVs.

*Calculation made: Beta Carotene / 6 + retinol

Nutrition and health claims

According to the definitions of nutrition claims as presented in Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims, and in view of the composition of pineapple, the following claims may be used:

PINEAPPLE NUTRITION CLAIMS

  • Fat free(as 100g of pineapple provides less than 0.5g of fat).
  • Vitamin C rich (as 100 g of pineapple provides the equivalent of more than 30% of the NRVs).
  • Rich in manganese (as 100 g of pineapple provides the equivalent of more than 30% of NRVs).

HEALTH CLAIMS (for consumption of 100 g of pineapple)

Vitamin C
  • Vitamin C helps :
    • maintain normal immune system function during and after strenuous exercise,
    • and

    • to the normal formation of collagen to ensure the normal functioning of blood vessels,
    • to normal collagen formation to ensure normal bone function,
    • à la formation normale de collagène pour assurer la fonction normale des cartilages,
    • à la formation normale de collagène pour assurer la fonction normale des gencives,
    • à la formation normale de collagène pour assurer la fonction normale de la peau,
    • à la formation normale de collagène pour assurer la fonction normale des dents,
    • à un métabolisme énergétique normal,
    • au fonctionnement normal du système nerveux,
    • à des fonctions psychologiques normales,
    • au fonctionnement normal du système immunitaire,
    • à protéger les cellules contre le stress oxydatif,
    • à réduire la fatigue,
    • à la régénération de la forme réduite de la vitamine E.
  • La vitamine C accroît l’absorption de fer.
Du manganèse
  • Le manganèse contribue :
    • à un métabolisme énergétique normal,
    • au maintien d’une ossature normale,
    • à la formation normale de tissus conjonctifs,
    • à protéger les cellules contre le stress oxydatif.
  • National Agency for Food, Environmental, and Occupational Health Safety. Ciqual 2020 food nutritional composition table. Retrieved 7/24/2020 from Ciqual website https://ciqual.anses.fr/

  • Brat P, Hoang LN, Soler A, Reynes M, Brillouet JM. Physicochemical characterization of a new pineapple hybrid. (Flhoran41 Cv.) J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52(20):6170-7.
  • Cirad. (14/11/2016) “Production and trade of fresh and processed pineapple.” FruiTrop n°244. P.47
  • Dorey E, Fournier P, Léchaudel M, Tixier P. Modeling sugar content of pineapple under agro-climatic conditions on Reunion Island. European Journal of Agronomy. 2016;73:6472.
  • Du L, Sun G, Zhang X, Liu Y, Prinyawiwatkul W, Xu Z, et al. Comparisons and correlations of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of seventeen varieties of pineapple. Food Science and Biotechnology. 2016;25(2):44551.
  • Ivanova NN, Khomich LM, Perova IB, Eller KI. [Pineapple juice nutritional profile]. Voprosy Pitaniia. 2019;88(2):7382.
  • Koia JH, Moyle RL, Botella JR. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits. BMC Plant Biol. 2012;12:240.
  • Lee JH, Lee JT, Park HR, Kim JB. The potential use of bromelain as a natural oral medicine having anticarcinogenic activities. Food Sci Nutr. 2019;7(5):1656-67
  • Neveu V, Perez-Jiménez J, Vos F, Crespy V, du Chaffaut L, Mennen L, Knox C, Eisner R, Cruz J, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2010) Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database, doi: 10.1093/database/bap024. Full text (free access)
  • Redwan RM, Saidin A, Kumar SV. The draft genome of MD-2 pineapple using hybrid error correction of long reads. DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes. 2016;23(5):42739.
  • Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods.
  • Commission Regulation (EU) No. 432/2012 of 16 May 2012 establishing a list of permitted health claims made on foods, other than those referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children’s development and health.
  • Regulation (EU) No. 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers, amending Regulations (EC) No. 1924/2006 and (EC) No. 1925/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Commission Directive 87/250/EEC, Council Directive 90/496/EEC, Commission Directive 1999/10/EC, Directive 200/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Directives 2002/67/EC and 2008/5/EC, and Commission Regulation (EC) No. 608/2004.
  • September-Malaterre A, Stanislas G, Douraguia E, Gonthier M-P. Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant properties of the tropical fruits banana, litchi, mango, papaya, passion fruit and pineapple cultivated in Réunion French Island. Food Chemistry. 2016;212:22533.
  • Steingass CB, Vollmer K, Lux PE, Dell C, Carle R, Schweiggert RM. HPLC-DAD-APCI-MSn analysis of the genuine carotenoid pattern of pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) infructescence. Food Research International (Ottawa, Ont.). 2020;127:108709.
  • Tokimoto Y, Steinhaus M, Büttner A, Schieberle P. Odor-active constituents in fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) by quantitative and sensory evaluation. Biosci Biotechnicol Biochem. 2005;69(7):132-30.
  • Yao Z, Li C, Gu Y, Zhang Q, Liu L, Meng G, et al. Dietary myricetin intake is inversely associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population. Nutrition Research (New York, N.Y.). 2019;68:8291.
  • Zhang XM, Wang W, Du LQ, Xie JH, Yao YL, Sun GM. Expression patterns, activities and carbohydrate-metabolizing regulation of sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase and neutral invertase in pineapple fruit during development and ripening. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(8):9460-77.
Composition and analysis