Basilic

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Caloric intake
-
mg Manganese
Produit frais
seasonality of the product
spring, summer, autumn
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Description

  • Basil (Ocimum basilicum) belongs to the Lamiaceae family.
  • It is a culinary plant that is widely used as a flavouring agent in a broad variety of fields (Shirazi, 2014).
  • This aromatic plant can be grown as an annual or perennial depending on the region where it is cultivated (da Costa, 2014).

PHYSICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS

  • The stems grow up to 1 m high and are strongly branched.
  • The leaves vary in size from 1 to 4 cm long and from 1.85 to 9.25 cm wide. They are stalked, opposite, oval, and notched with green or purple (da Costa, 2014).
  • Chlorophyll is responsible for the green colour of basil, but basil also contains significant amounts of other pigments such as carotenoids and flavones (nevadensin, salvigenin, and gardenin B) (Torre, 2016).
  • Some varieties of basil, such as Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens, have a purple colour due to the presence of anthocyanins (Fernandes, 2019).
  • Linalool, nerol, geraniol and eugenol, from the terpene family, are thought to be responsible for the fresh flavour of basil (Jordán, 2017).
  • Other terpenes and phenylpropanoids are also involved in the flavour of this culinary herb. The most abundant are the monoterpenes linalool and 1,8-cineole, the sesquiterpenes α-bergamotene and α-farnesene, and the phenylpropenes eugenol, estragol, (Z)-methyl cinnamate, methyl eugenol and isoeugenolol (Carvalho, 2016).
  • Among the 18 active flavours detected, in addition to terpenes, we find aldehydes (3), ketone (1), phenol (1), alcohol (1) and unknown compounds (2) (Sonmezdag, 2018).

COMPOSITION CHARACTERISTICS (excluding macronutrients, vitamins and minerals)

  • Basil leaf is an important source of polyphenols, the main ones being rutin, isoquercetin, quercetinin and ρ-coumaric acid (Vlase, 2014).
  • Basil is also high in rosmarinic acid (RA), a phenolic compound that gives it antioxidant properties, and which is found in 1.64 times higher levels in green basil leaves than in purple ones. This phenolic acid has, in particular, anti-mutagenic, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties (Kwon, 2019).
  • Basil may have health benefits such as antihypertensive, anti-ageing, anticancer, antiviral, antifungal, and antimicrobial effects (Kwon, 2019).
  • Phenolic compounds, including rosmarinic acid, and ethanol contained in basil are believed to have anticancer properties, particularly on head and neck cancer cells, by inhibiting their growth (Utispan, 2020).

The volatile compounds present in basil may have antioxidant, anti-allergic, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-proliferative and immunostimulant properties (Carvalho, 2016).

  • Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail. Table de composition nutritionnelle des aliments Ciqual 2020. Consultée le 27/07/2020 depuis le site internet Ciqual https://ciqual.anses.fr/

  • Barreira JC, Pereira JA, Oliveira MB, Ferreira JC. Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2010;65(1):38-43.
  • Carvalho SD, Schwieterman ML, Abrahan CE, Colquhoun TA, Folta KM. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum). Frontiers in Plant Science. 2016;7:1328.
  • da Costa AS, Arrigoni-Blank Mde F, da Silva MA, Alves MF, Santos Dde A, Alves PB, Blank AF. The impact of hybridization on the volatile and sensorial profile of Ocimum basilicum L. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014;2014:824594.
  • Fernandes F, Pereira E, Prieto MA, Calhelha RC, Ćirić A, Soković M, et al. Optimization of the Extraction Process to Obtain a Colorant Ingredient from Leaves of Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2019;24(4):686.
  • Jordán MJ, Quílez M, Luna MC, Bekhradi F, Sotomayor JA, Sánchez-Gómez P, et al. Influence of water stress and storage time on preservation of the fresh volatile profile of three basil genotypes. Food Chemistry. 2017;221: 169–77.
  • Kwon DY, Li X, Kim JK, Park SU. Molecular cloning and characterization of rosmarinic acid biosynthetic genes and rosmarinic acid accumulation in Ocimum basilicum L. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2019;26(3):469-72.
  • Neveu V, Perez-Jiménez J, Vos F, Crespy V, du Chaffaut L, Mennen L, Knox C, Eisner R, Cruz J, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2010) Phenol-Explorer: an online comprehensive database on polyphenol contents in foods. Database, doi: 10.1093/database/bap024. Full text (free access)
  • Règlement (CE) N° 1924/2006 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 20 décembre 2006 concernant les allégations nutritionnelles et de santé portant sur les denrées alimentaires.
  • Règlement (UE) N°432/2012 de la Commission du 16 mai 2012 établissant une liste des allégations de santé autorisées portant sur les denrées alimentaires, autres que celles faisant référence à la réduction du risque de maladie ainsi qu’au développement et à la santé infantiles.
  • Règlement (UE) n°1169/2011 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 25 octobre 2011 concernant l’information des consommateurs sur les denrées alimentaires, modifiant les règlements (CE) n°1924/2006 et (CE) n°1925/2006 du Parlement européen et de Conseil et abrogeant la directive 87/250/CEE de la Commission, la directive 90/496/CEE du Conseil, la directive 1999/10/CE de la Commission, la directive 200/13/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil, les directives 2002/67/CE et 2008/5/CE de la Commission et le règlement (CE) n°608/2004 de la Commission.
  • Shirazi MT, Gholami H, Kavoosi G, Rowshan V, Tafsiry A. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta and Ocimum basilicum essential oils. Food Sci Nutr. 2014;2(2):146-55.
  • Sonmezdag AS, Amanpour A, Kelebek H, Selli S. The most aroma-active compounds in shade-dried aerial parts of basil obtained from Iran and Turkey. Industrial Crops and Products. 2018;124:692–8.
  • Torre S, Tattini M, Brunetti C, Guidi L, Gori A, Marzano C, et al. De Novo Assembly and Comparative Transcriptome Analyses of Red and Green Morphs of Sweet Basil Grown in Full Sunlight. PloS One. 2016;11(8): e0160370.
  • Utispan K, Niyomtham N, Yingyongnarongkul, Koontongkaew S. Ethanolic Extract of Ocimum sanctum Leaves Reduced Invasion and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity of Head and Neck Cancer Cell Lines. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP. 2020; 21(2): 363-70.
  • Vlase L, Benedec D, Hanganu D, Damian G, Csillag I, Sevastre B, Mot AC, Silaghi-Dumitrescu R, Tilea I. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Molecules. 2014;19(5):5490-507.
Composition and analysis